• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration

    It's happened to me, and I'm sure it's happened to you, as well. You pop in a CD to install a driver for a snazzy new piece of hardware and blam, the system comes to a grinding halt and the bugcheck screen appears. After a few minutes, the system restarts and you watch as blam, the system crashes again.

    It doesn't take a diagnostic genius to figure out that the driver you just installed made some change in the deep recesses of the machine that is giving Mr. Computer indigestion. The problem now becomes restoring the system back to functionality.

    The obvious first step is to keep the bad driver from loading. Drivers are loaded by Registry entries in a top-level key in the System hive called a control set. If you could just use a copy of the old control set that doesn't have the entry for the new driver, life would be good. This is the philosophy behind the Last Known Good Configuration option in the Safe Mode menu.

    Structure of Control Sets

    Launch the Registry Editor and expand the tree under the HKLM | System hive to a key called Current Control Set. This control set holds four high-level keys that have the parameters for controlling services and drivers. These keys are as follows:

    • Control. This key contains the parameters that the operating system kernel needs to boot the system. This includes settings for software classes, device classes, load sequencing for device drivers, and security settings. Control also contains parameters used by the Configuration Manager so it can access the Registry. This leads to a Catch-22 situation. The Configuration Manager needs parameters in the Control key to tell it how to read transaction tracking logs. If an update to the Control key is in the transaction tracking log, the system could fail to start. For this reason, the system stores a complete backup of the System hive in a file called System.alt.

    • Enum. This key stores the results of Plug-and-Play enumeration. When you open the Device Management console and see the list of devices and their associated parameters and resources, you are looking at a graphical representation of the Enum key contents.

    • Hardware Profiles. This key is like a miniature control set that sets special parameters for Docked or Undocked conditions. Hardware profiles are rarely needed thanks to Plug-and-Play, but if you define profiles, the special configuration settings associated with that profile are saved here. If multiple hardware profiles exist, then Ntldr presents a selection menu right after the standard boot menu.

    • Services. This key contains the operating parameters for all services and drivers.

    You'll notice that there are three control set keys: the Current Control Set and Control Set 1 and Control Set 2. Highlight the Select key, which sits outside the control sets. This key has three values:

    • Current. This points to the control set that was used to boot the machine. This entry points at Control Set 1.

    • Default. This points to the control set that will be used during the next normal boot. This entry also points at Control Set 1.

    • Failed. If this entry has a value, it's because a control set has been marked as Failed following the selection of a new default control set. The normal entry is 0, meaning that no control sets have been marked as failed.

    • LastKnownGood. This entry points at the control set that last successfully booted the machine. This entry points at Control Set 2.

    Recovering the Last Known Good Configuration

    With this information in mind, Procedure 21.7 shows the sequence of events when a machine boots and the user selects the Last Known Good Configuration option.

    Procedure 21.7 Booting with the Last Known Good Configuration

    1. The machine POSTs then loads the boot sector image. This image loads the NT bootstrap loader, Ntldr.

    2. One of Ntldr's duties is to check HKLM | System | Select to find the identity of the Default control set. It passes the number of this control set to the NT kernel driver, Ntoskrnl.

    3. If the user interrupts the standard boot process by pressing F8 at the boot menu, Ntldr displays the Advanced Options Menu. One of the options is Last Known Good Configuration.

    4. Highlight the Last Known Good Configuration option and press Enter. The system returns to the boot menu with a red message across the bottom of the screen saying Last Known Good Configuration. At this point, two things happen in the Select key. The original Default control set, which was Control Set 1, is now marked as Failed. Also, the LastKnownGood control set, Control Set 2, is set as Default.

    5. Select the standard boot menu item, which should say Microsoft Windows Server 2003, and press Enter. NTLDR starts loading drivers then displays the Hardware Profile/Configuration Recovery Menu.

    6. The Recovery Menu is a combination of the hardware profile selection menu and a control set selection window. This window is a holdover from classic NT. No action should be taken.

    7. Press Enter to continue or let the counter do it for you. The Windows Executive loads, shifts to graphics mode, then initializes the system based on the contents of the Default control set, which at this time is Control Set 2. In other words, Control Set 2 becomes the Current control set.

    8. If the system boots successfully, defined as all services starting, all drivers loading, and a user logging on successfully at the console, then a value of 1 is set in the ReportBootOK value under the Winlogon key in HKLM | Software | Microsoft | Windows NT | CurrentVersion.

    9. A ReportBootOK of 1 indicates that the current control set successfully booted the system. The contents of the current control set, which is now Control Set 2, is copied to a new control set, Control Set 3, which becomes the LastKnownGood control set.

    After this procedure, the resulting control set assignments in the Select key would be the following:

    • CurrentЧ Control Set 2

    • DefaultЧ Control Set 2

    • FailedЧ Control Set 1

    • LastKnownGoodЧ Control Set 3

    As you can see, this game of musical control sets only resolves a blue screen problem if it is caused by an entry in a control set subkey. If the problem is caused by an entry in some other hive, such as Software, the system will continue to be unstable.

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