• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Creating and Managing Home Directories

    If you don't want to use folder redirection policies but you still want to have users put their data on servers, you can use classic home directories. A home directory provides a convenient storage location that users seem to understand. You can say, "Put it in your U drive," and users generally know what you want them to do.

    Preparing home directories for users is a two-step process:

    1. Designate a home server and create a shared folder to host the user's home directories.

    2. Configure each user's account in Active Directory to point at the shared folder on the home server.

    Home directory information is stored in the User object in Active Directory in two attributes: Home-Directory and Home-Drive.

    Any server can host home directories. It does not need to be a Windows server. If you have clients with multiple network providers, the home directory can be a NetWare or Banyan or UNIX box running NFS (Network File System).

    If you use a Windows server, be sure to create the user home directory share on an NTFS volume so you can take advantage of file and folder permissions to keep users out of each other's personal data.

    Assigning a Home Directory Using AD Users and Computers

    You can create home directories in two ways. You can use the graphical user management tools in the AD Users and Computers console or you can use the command line. Let's start with the console. Assign a home directory to a user account as shown in Procedure 19.1.

    Procedure 19.1 Assigning a User Home Directory with AD Users and Computers

    1. Open the AD Users and Computers console and expand the tree to where the user objects are stored.

    2. Double-click the user object to open the Properties window.

    3. Select the Profile tab (see Figure 19.4).

      Figure 19.4. User Properties from AD Users and Computers console showing home directory setting under Profile tab.

      graphics/19fig04.gif

    4. Under Home Folder, select the Connect radio button.

    5. Enter the drive letter you want to use for the home drive and the UNC path to the home directory.

    6. Click OK to save the changes and close the Properties window. The system automatically creates a home directory at the specified shared directory. The ACLs are automatically configured to give the user and the Administrators group Full Control rights.

    Creating Home Directories from the Command Line

    If you don't like using a GUI for something as simple as creating a home directory, here are the actions for creating user home directories from the command line. Most of the tools come as standard utilities. A few tools come from the Resource Kit. The example shown in Procedure 19.2 creates a home directory for a Help Desk administrator named Rita Manuel.

    Procedure 19.2 Assigning a Home Directory Using the Command Line

    1. Open a command prompt and enter the following command to create the user account:

      net user rmanuel * /add /fullname:"Rita Manuel" /comment:"Help Desk Admin" /domain
      

      The * forces Net to prompt for a password and confirmation rather than entering the password on the command line.

      The /domain switch adds the user to the Active Directory. Without this switch, if you are at a member server or workstation instead of a domain controller, the net user /add command creates the account in the local Security Account Manager (SAM).

    2. Create a home directory for Rita. This can be done at the console of the server or across the network as follows:

      MD e:\users\rmanuel
      

      Or:

      MD \\S1\users\rmanuel
      
    3. If you choose to create individual shares for home directories, create a share point at the console of the server using the Net Share command as follows:

      net share rmanuel=c:\users\rmanuel
      

      To create a share across the network, use a tool in the Resource Kit called RMTSHARE. You must be logged onto the domain with administrator privileges to use RMTSHARE. The syntax for this utility is as follows:

      rmtshare \\S1\rmanuel=c:\users\rmanuel
      
    4. Set Rita's user account to point at the home directory. This is also done with the Net User command. The default home drive letter is Z. No command-line option exists for setting a different drive letter. The syntax is as follows:

      net user rmanuel /homedir:\\S1\rmanuel
      
    5. At this point, Rita's home directory inherits access permissions from its parent. This might include other users or inappropriate groups. Set the ACLs on the home directory so that only Rita can access it. The command-line utility for applying NTFS file permissions is Cacls.exe. You can use CACLS locally or across the network. This is the syntax for giving Rita and Administrator Full Control rights and removing everyone else from the ACL:

      cacls \\S1\users\rmanuel /t /g rmanuel:f /g administrator:f
      

      The /t option applies the change to the directory and all child directories and files.

      The /g option grants the specified permissions to the user.

      The rmanuel:f option grants Full Control access to Rita's account. The same is true for the Administrators local group.

    6. When you enter this command, CACLS prompts for confirmation. Enter Y for Yes and the change is applied.

    7. Finally, if you intend on using quotas, you need to set ownership of Rita's home directory to Rita. This cannot be done using tools from Microsoft. I recommend the CHOWN utility from Services for UNIX (SFU).

    Armed with these commands, you can build a script to automate a user addition. Be sure to give the script file a .cmd extension. The following example shows a simple batch script that accepts the user's login ID, full name, and title as command-line arguments:

    md \\S1\users\%1
    net share %1=c:\users\%1 (or rmtshare \\S1\%1=c:\users\%1)
    net user %1 * /add /domain /homedir:\\S1\users\%1   /fullname:%2 /comment:%3
    cacls \\S1\users\%1 /t /g %1:f
    chown \\S1\users\rmanuel rmanuel
    

    You can use VBScript, JScript, or Perl to make more elaborate scripts. The person using the script must have sufficient administrative rights to add user accounts and modify ACLs.

    Mapping Home Directories for Downlevel Clients

    When you assign a home directory to a user at a modern Windows client, the home drive is mapped automatically when the user logs on. This is not true for users at downlevel clients such as Windows 3.1x and Windows 9x. Downlevel clients require that the home directory be mapped in a logon script. Here is the syntax:

    net use u: \\S1\users /home
    

    A limitation of classic Windows clients is that a network drive can only map to a share point, not a folder underneath.

    For example, if you map the U drive for a downlevel client to \\S1\users\dletterman, the client maps only to the users share, so the U drive contains all the home directories, not just the files for dletterman.

    The workaround is to create a share for each user home directory. You can hide the shares from the browser by giving them a dollar-sign ($) ending. For example, if the physical directory holding home directories is on the E drive of the server with the path E:\Users\DLetterman, the share point would be Dletterman$ and the UNC path would be \\S1\dletterman$.

    The dollar sign does not truly hide the share, so don't use it in place of tight NTFS security on the home directory folders.

    Terminal Services and Home Directories

    In the multiuser environment of terminal services, user configuration settings are saved to the user's home directory. If a user does not have a home directory, terminal services creates one in the user's local profile. This is done by a set of batch files that run each time a user logs on at a server running terminal services.

    For example, Office 97 applications save user templates to C:\Program Files\Office97\Templates. If this is done in a terminal services environment, users would overwrite each other's templates. A set of scripts in the \Windows\Application Compatibility Scripts folder redirect common folders used by older applications to the individual user's home directory.

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