• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Key Archival and Recovery

    Any front desk clerk at a hotel will tell you that people cannot be totally trusted with keys. They get lost, washed, ironed, or simply left on the wrong side of a door with an automatic lock.

    Providing a central repository for replacement keys is a tricky proposition. If this repository were to be compromised, the entire PKI would be useless. Worse than useless, actually, because it may still seem to be reliable as the bad guys plunder the encrypted files and email messages.

    Still, the ability to maintain continued access to data in the face of user neglect or mistake makes a secure key repository a highly attractive feature. Standard PKI has defined such a creature. It is called a Registration Authority, or RA. For many years, Microsoft has provided a Registration Authority for Exchange users in the form of the Key Management Service, or KMS. This service stores copies of users' mail encryption keys where they can be re-issued, if necessary.

    The KMS in Exchange 2000 is an add-on to a Windows 2000 CA. With Windows Server 2003, Microsoft includes a Registration Authority directly in the CA service. The next version of Exchange will dispense with the KMS and use the Windows Server 2003 RA. In fact, there is even a migration utility to transfer the KMS database to a Windows Server 2003 CA.

    The CA can only store encryption keys for re-issue. Digital signature keys cannot be re-issued because that defeats the non-repudiation feature of a signature. If you could store digital signature private keys, a sender accused of sending a malicious message could make the case that it was an administrator with access to the key repository that sent the message.

    Key recovery requires the use of an enterprise-level certificate template called Key Recovery Agent. For this reason, you cannot do key recovery on a standalone CA. Only Enterprise CAs have access to templates. Also, by default, only Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins have access to the Key Recovery Agent template. This is controlled by permissions on the template in Active Directory. You can access the template via the AD Sites and Services console with the VIEW | SERVICES NODE option enabled. The template object is located in Services | Public Key Services | Certificate Templates. Change the permissions on the template to permit other administrative groups to issue Key Recovery certificates.

    Key recovery is not enabled by default. In fact, enabling key recovery turns out to be a relatively complicated process, much more so than it should be. Here are the stages:

    • Create a Key Recovery Agent. This account is issued a certificate authorizing it to generate and certify public/private key pairs on behalf of users. Recall that the normal key certification process requires that the user account generate the key pair then request certification for the public key.

    • Configure a CA to archive keys and to permit key recovery.

    • Issue a new template that will be used in lieu of the standard User template for generating archival certificates.

    Create a Key Recovery Agent

    Configuring a CA to issue Recovery Agent certificates involves loading the Key Recovery Agent template from the template cache in Active Directory into the template cache at the CA. You then use this template to issue a certificate to the Key Recovery account you have selected. Use the steps in Procedure 18.3 to create a Key Recovery Agent.

    Procedure 18.3 Creating a Key Recovery Agent

    1. Open the Certification Authority console.

    2. Right-click Certificate Templates and select New | Certificate Template to Issue. The Enable Certificate Templates window opens (see Figure 18.23).

      Figure 18.23. Enable Certificate Templates window showing the Key Recovery Agent template.


    3. Click OK to load the template. It now appears in the right pane of the Certification Authority console.

    4. Log on at the workstation you will use for Key Recovery using the account you have selected as the Key Recovery Agent.

    5. Open the Certificates snap-in and expand the tree to PERSONAL | CERTIFICATES.

    6. Right-click the Certificates icon and select NEW | REQUEST NEW CERTIFICATE from the flyout menu. The Certificate Request Wizard starts.

    7. Click Next. The Certificate Types window opens. Select Key Recovery Agent.

    8. Click Next. The Certificate Friendly Name and Description window opens.

    9. Click Next. A summary window opens.

    10. Click Finish to complete the transaction and close the wizard. You get a message that the request was received by the CA and the certificate will be issued when approved by the Certificate Manager.

    11. In the Certification Authority console, select the Pending Requests icon. The certificate request is displayed in the right pane.

    12. Right-click the certificate request icon and select ALL TASKS | ISSUE from the flyout menu. The certificate now appears under the Issued Certificates icon.

    Configure a CA to Archive Certificates

    The Key Recovery Agent is now prepared. The next stage is to configure the CA to archive certificates. Follow the steps in Procedure 18.4.

    Procedure 18.4 Configuring a CA to Archive Certificates

    1. In the Certification Authority console, right-click the server icon and select PROPERTIES from the flyout menu.

    2. Select the Recovery Agents tab in the Properties window (see Figure 18.24).

      Figure 18.24. CA Properties window showing Recovery Agents tab.


    3. Select the Archive The Key radio button.

    4. Under the Key Recovery Agents field, click Add. The Key Recovery Agent Selection window opens, listing the account to whom you just issued a Key Recovery Agent certificate.

    5. Click OK to load the agent into the list. The agent icon has a red X in it and the Status shows as Not Loaded.

    6. Click OK to initialize key recovery. You'll be prompted to stop and restart the CA service. Do so.

    7. When the service restarts, verify that the agent status shows Valid.

    Create Archive Template

    The CA is now ready to archive keys. The next stage is to create a template that can be used to issue archival keys and to load this template into the CA. Follow the steps in Procedure 18.5.

    Procedure 18.5 Creating an Archive Template

    1. In the Certification Authority console, load the Certificate Templates snap-in by right-clicking the Certificate Template icon and selecting MANAGE from the flyout menu.

    2. Select the User template icon. At this point, the icon is dimmed.

    3. Right-click the icon and select DUPLICATE TEMPLATE from the flyout menu. A Properties window opens for a copy of the Recovery Agent template (see Figure 18.25).

      Figure 18.25. Properties window for copy of User template showing General tab.


    4. Change the Template Display Name to Archive User. The Template Name will change automatically.

    5. Select the Publish Certificate In Active Directory option.

    6. Select the Request Handling tab (see Figure 18.26).

      Figure 18.26. Properties window for copy of User template showing Request Handling tab.


    7. Select the Archive Subject's Encryption Private Key option.

    8. Select the Allow Private Key to be Exported option.

    9. Select the Issuance Requirements tab.

    10. De-select the CA Certificate Manager Approval option. This permits the CA to issue the certificate without the intervention of an administrator.

    11. Click OK to initialize the new template. The icon appears in the Templates console in full color.

    12. Close the Templates snap-in.

    13. In the Certification Authority console, press F5 to refresh.

    14. Right-click Certificate Templates and select NEW | CERTIFICATE TEMPLATE TO ISSUE from the flyout menu. The Enable Certificate Templates window opens.

    15. Select the Archive User icon and click OK. The icon now appears in the list of available certificates.

    16. To make sure you can tell the difference between standard certificates and archived certificates, enable the Archived Key column in the console by highlighting the Issued Certificates icon then selecting VIEW | ADD/REMOVE COLUMNS | ARCHIVED KEY from the main console menu.

    At this point, you can request an Archive User certificate using the Certificates snap-in at a client desktop. Use the procedure in the section, "Certificate Enrollment Using the Certificates Snap-In."

    Recover an Archived Certificate

    If a user loses a private encryption key, recover the key from the CA using the steps in Procedure 18.6.

    Procedure 18.6 Recovering a Lost Key

    1. Open the Certification Authority console.

    2. Under the Issued Certificates icon, locate the certificate for the key you want to re-issue. There should be a Yes in the Archive Key column, indicating that the certificate is recoverable.

    3. Double-click the certificate icon to open the Properties window.

    4. Select the Details tab and write down the serial number of the certificate (see Figure 18.27) or take a screen shot by using Alt+PrintScrn and then pasting into Mspaint and printing. There are 20 numerals in the serial number. Don't use spaces.

      Figure 18.27. Properties window for a certificate showing the Details tab that lists the serial number of the certificate.


    5. From a command prompt, use the CERTUTIL utility to extract the key to an output file, called a blob file, as follows:

      certutil -getkey <serial_number> <blob_file>
    6. This blob file contains the private key in PKCS #7 format. You must now convert this file to a PFX file (any name with a .pfx extension) so you can transport it to the user's desktop. Do this with the CERTUTIL utility as follows:

      certutil -recoverkey -f <blob_file> <pfx_file>
    7. When prompted for a password, assign a strong password to the file. You will need this password when importing the key at the user's desktop.

    8. Transport the PFX file to the user's desktop then log on as the user and double-click the file in Explorer. This launches the Certificate Import Wizard.

    9. Use the Wizard to place the key in the user's personal store. Verify using the Certificates snap-in that the key is in place.

    This completes the recovery procedure.

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