• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Special EFS Guidelines

    This section contains information about EFS limitations and special operational considerations for deploying EFS effectively.

    Moving and Copying Encrypted Files

    Files are like children growing up in rural communities. They rarely stay in the folder where they were created. When users move or copy encrypted files, they may get unexpected results, especially if they are unaware that the files were encrypted in the first place.

    A user who encrypts a file (or whose name is on the list of additional users who can access an encrypted file) can copy the file contents anywhere. This is because the data stream is decrypted as it leaves the drive.

    If a user attempts to copy or move an encrypted file to a location that does not support EFS, the Explorer shell will warn of the possibility of exposing the file's contents. The user can choose to ignore the warning and save the file anyway. If the user is working at the command line, the COPY and XCOPY commands will block operations involving insecure target volumes. There are new switches to override the block. The syntax is copy /d and xcopy /g.

    If a user copies an unencrypted file into an encrypted folder, the new file is encrypted. If a user moves an unencrypted file into an encrypted folder, an action that ordinarily does not touch the file's data, the system takes over and encrypts the file anyway on the assumption that this is what the user would have wanted. This is not true if you work from the command line. The MOVE command leaves a file in clear text even if it is moved to an encrypted folder.

    If a user copies an encrypted file to a server that has been trusted for delegation, the file is first decrypted at the client, then transmitted in clear text across the network, then encrypted again at the server using the public key in the user profile at the server. If you want files to traverse the wire in encrypted form, use WebDAV or implement IPSec (described in the next chapter).

    A user who cannot access the data of an encrypted file can still move the file to another location on the same volume as long as he has sufficient NTFS permissions on the file. This is because moving the encrypted file does not touch the file's data, only the back-link to the parent directory. This ability to access the non-data portions of the file includes the ability to delete the file either by moving it to the Recycle Bin or removing it from the volume completely. Encryption is not a replacement for proper NTFS permissions.

    If a user attaches an encrypted file to an email message, the file is first decrypted and then copied into the MIME attachment. This exposes the file unless the user has enabled S/MIME.

    Files That Cannot Be Encrypted

    Just about any file can be encrypted. This includes data files, executables and DLLs, temp files, and configuration files. Here are a few exceptions:

    • Compressed files. Encrypted files cannot be compressed, and compressed files cannot be encrypted. The encryption algorithm scrambles a file to such an extent that there are no consecutive sets of characters to make compression worthwhile.

    • Mount points and reparse points. Symbolic links to other file systems or folders cannot be encrypted. If you want to encrypt the files and folders behind a mount point, you can change directory into the mount point and then select the files from there. The mount point must contain a file system running NTFS 3.0 or later.

    • System files. EFS will refuse to encrypt a file that has its system attribute set. The operating system may need to read a system file at boot time before EFS has had a chance to initialize. You can use this feature to your advantage by setting the system attribute on files you don't want users to encrypt.

    In addition, if you have enabled the Content Indexing Service on a machine, any file that is encrypted is automatically removed from the index. This prevents giving away the contents of the file within the index catalog.

    Temp Files, Paging Files, Hibernation Files, and Spool Files

    If an application saves temp files, be sure to put the temp files in the same folder as the encrypted files—either that or encrypt the folder where the temp files are saved.

    When encrypting temp folders, don't forget to include the \Local Settings\Temp folder in the user's profile. The simplest way to find this folder is to open a command prompt and run cd /d %temp%.

    The contents of the paging file and hibernation file are not encrypted. You can enable policies to remove the paging file at logoff and disable hibernation. Erasing the paging file does not prevent someone from examining the contents with a hex editor, though it's a daunting task to search through 4KB pages looking for worthwhile information. Using XP, you can disable the paging file entirely. This eliminates the vulnerability, but you must ensure that you have sufficient memory in the machine to handle the applications loaded by the user.

    If your laptop users threaten to mutiny if you disable hibernation, make a deal with them that you will leave hibernation enabled if they always close their data files before hibernating their machines. There's a big difference between "cross my heart" promises and full compliance, though, so let your auditing group know to be on the lookout for this problem.

    If you want to protect the contents of files as they print, be sure to encrypt the spool files located in \Windows\System32\Spool\Printers.

    Offline Files

    If you enable offline files for laptop users, you should consider encrypting the offline folders cache. This encrypts the entire contents of the cache and does so without changing the encryption status of the files on the server.

    The option to encrypt the files is set in the Offline Files tab of the Folder Options window. Figure 17.13 shows an example.

    Figure 17.13. Folder Options window showing encryption option.


    This feature is not available in Windows 2000. I recommend upgrading your laptops to XP as quickly as possible if you want to use Microsoft's file encryption services.

    Virus Checking

    Most virus scanners run in either the Local System security context or the new Local Service context. In that configuration, a scanner cannot open a user's encrypted files and therefore may miss a virus.

    Unfortunately, there is not a clean workaround to this problem. Any solution that would permit a virus scanner to see a user's files could permit a bad guy to see the files, as well. The best solution is to have a real-time virus scanner running at the desktops and servers that can analyze files for virus signatures as they open. For some viruses, this might be too little, too late. Look for progress on this front from vendors of virus software.

    Encryption and System Restore

    Windows XP sports a new feature called System Restore. This feature takes a snapshot of a system every so often and saves the settings to a cache file. This includes any software that's loaded along with drivers and system configuration settings. If a user installs an application that causes the system to become unstable, the user can return the system to the settings in a stored snapshot.

    When System Restore rolls back a system to a previous configuration, you take the chance of exposing encrypted files. It has been my experience that System Restore does a good job of maintaining encryption status, but Microsoft warns of this possibility so it's worth taking seriously.

    The System Restore service can be configured to exclude selected folders from the list of monitored folders and files. You can configure the service to avoid encrypted folders. In production, you may not be able to guarantee that the only encrypted files on a machine are in the designated folders. If you perform a system restore for a user, you may want to log on as the user and gather all encrypted files into a central location and then use Ntbackup to make a backup file of the encrypted files prior to running the system restore. Use cipher /u /n to scan for encrypted files.

      Previous Section Next Section