• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print

    There are as many different ways to connect computers to printers as there are ways for people to communicate with each other. A Windows Server 2003 print communicates with these interfaces using a print monitor. In general, print topologies fall into these categories:

    • Printing to a local print device. The print device is connected directly to the server via a parallel, serial, USB, infrared, FireWire, or PCMCIA interface.

    • Printing to a network print device. The print device is connected to a network interface that the print server communicates with using a network print provider. Examples include HP JetDirect, Castelle LANpress, Intel NetPort, and the x-crowd: Lantronix, Xionics, Emulex, and Extended Systems.

      Registry Tip: Printer Registry Entries

      Registry entries affecting printing are contained in HKLM | System | CurrentControlSet | Control | Print.

    • Printing to a Windows server. The print device is connected to a Windows server and is shared. The print server accepts print jobs from network clients, renders them, and despools them to the print device.

    • Printing to a UNIX server. The print device is connected to a UNIX host or some other device that uses Line Printer Daemon (LPD) to control access to the print resource.

    • Printing to a third-party server. The print device is connected to a third-party print server such as a NetWare server or a Macintosh host that requires special handling and protocols to deliver the print job.

    • Printing over the Internet. The print device is connected to a server configured to accept print jobs via Internet Printing Protocol (IPP).

    • Printing to and from mainframe hosts. The print device is connected to a mainframe or AS400 or some other host-based computing behemoth. This bit of arcanery falls beyond the scope of this book. It involves that most awful of marriages: APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking) over SNA to SMB over IP. The acronyms themselves are enough to make you want to change professions. For specifics on mainframe printing in a Windows environment, look at the documentation that comes with Microsoft Host Integration Server (formerly SNA Server).

    The following sections describe how to create a printer for each of the configurations in the preceding list.

    Printing to a Local Print Device

    For all but the parallel and serial ports, print driver installation in Windows Server 2003 is handled by Plug and Play (PnP). If the printer does not support Plug and Play, or it connects to a legacy port, you need to manually scan for the printer after connecting it to the computer. Do this by opening the Device Manager console, Devmgmt.msc, right-clicking the icon and the top of the tree, and selecting SCAN FOR NEW HARDWARE. If that doesn't work, follow Procedure 16.12 to manually load the drivers.

    Procedure 16.12 Installing a Non-PnP-Compatible Printer

    1. From the Start button, select SETTINGS | PRINTERS AND FAXES. The Printers and Faxes window opens.

    2. Double-click the Add Printer icon. The Add Printer Wizard starts with the Select a Printer Port window open. In the Use Following Port drop-down box, select the LPT or COM port you want to use.

    3. Click Next. The Install Printer Software window opens. Select the vendor and make/model of printer. If the printer is not listed, click Have Disk and provide the Windows Server 2003 drivers. Windows 2000 drivers will work, as well.

    4. Click Next. The Name Your Printer window opens. Give the printer a name that isn't too long but clearly and uniquely identifies it. If this is the first printer, it will be selected as the default printer.

    5. Click Next. The Printer Sharing window opens. If you want to share the printer on the network, give it a share name. Keep in mind that downlevel Windows 9x clients cannot read share names longer than 15 characters.

    6. Click Next. The Location and Comment window opens. Enter information that helps the users differentiate between printers. This information is displayed in the Print windows of most 32-bit applications.

    7. Click Next. The Print Test Page window opens. It is usually a good idea to print a test page because the information shows what drivers were loaded, their time and data and version, as well as other nice-to-know information about the printer. Keep the sheet in a file for future reference.

    8. Click Next. A final completion window shows the selections you made. Click Finish to complete the installation.

    If you install a printer manually that is actually a PnP printer, you may find that the system discovers the device the next time you reboot and insists on reinstalling it. Windows Server 2003 is much better about avoiding this scenario because it assigns unique names in the background to the printer, but mistakes still happen. If it does, you'll need to install the printer again. It doesn't take long now that the drivers have been installed.

    Printing to a Network Print Device

    The only real difference between printing to a network print device such as a JetDirect or NetPort card and a locally connected printer on a USB or FireWire interface is the complexity of the communications.

    The print monitor works with a network print provider to send a print job to a network print device. There is no abstraction layer between the providers and the monitors. Each monitor is paired to its own provider and each provider handles one and only one protocol.

    Windows Server 2003 and XP primarily rely on TCP/IP printing via Tcpmon when printing to network printer interfaces. Here are a few configuration issues that typically come up:

    • IP Address. The print server needs to know the IP address of the print device. This is typically entered as a static address because most shops use fixed IP addressing for their printers. The reason is that historically, DHCP/BootP devices had no method for interacting with DNS so that if their address changed, the print servers would lose connection. With Dynamic DNS (Windows or BIND), the device can register its new IP address so this is not as much of an issue.

    • Multiple print hosts. Many users hate to use print servers. They prefer to send their jobs directly to the print device. Sometimes this is a control issue and sometimes it's a reaction to an unreliable server. It is seldom a good idea to have users configure their local printers to print directly to a network printer interface. These devices have a limited buffer and they can become confused when confronted by many print jobs requests.

    • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Network print devices that support SNMP are becoming more and more common. By spending an extra few dollars, you get a device that traps errors to a management console and can also be managed from a central console. This is a big win if you have the existing SNMP management infrastructure, but it's not worth the money if the only thing you're going to manage is printing.

    Printing to a UNIX Host

    You can print to a UNIX print server using the Line Printer protocol, or LPR. The UNIX host must be running the complementary service, Line Printer Daemon, or LPD. This service listens for LPR traffic and processes the jobs sent to it.

    LPR is not loaded by default on Windows Server 2003. You must install Print Services for UNIX from the Add/Remove Programs applet in Control Panel. Look in the Other Network File and Print Services component.

    With LPR installed, you will get an additional port in the Add Printer Wizard called the LPR Port. If you select this port, the system will present a window called Add LPR Compatible Printer to obtain the IP address and queue name of the LDP server and the print device.

    Print Services for UNIX also adds an LPD service to the Windows server, making it possible for UNIX clients to print to the Windows server using LPR.

    Printing to a Windows Server

    A Windows Server 2003 client can print to any Windows print server ЧWindows 3.1x, Windows 9x, classic NT, Windows 2000, XP, and Windows Server 2003Чif the user has sufficient access rights. The print jobs run a bit faster between modern Windows clients because the EMF file format is tighter, but you probably won't see a noticeable improvement.

    Registry Tip: LPD Registry Entries

    The Registry settings that control the LPD service are located in the following keys:

    Key:    HKLM | System | CurrentControlSet | Services | LPDSVC | 
    Values:  AllowJobRemoval, AllowPrinterResume, and 
    graphics/ccc.gifMaxConcurrentUsers (set for 64 by default)

    There are several ways to connect a Windows client to a shared printer on a Windows server. The one used most often is the Add Printer Wizard. However, it is much easier to find the shared printer if you search Active Directory. This permits you to find the printers by location and by features. Figure 16.23 shows what the selection criteria looks like.

    Figure 16.23. Find Printers window showing basic selection criteria.


    You can use these canned queries or you can create an advanced query to search from just about any attribute associated with the Printer object class. For instance, you could search for color printers capable of printing 11x17 on both sides and staple the results. For this to work, either you or the INF script for the printer driver must populate those attributes in Active Directory.

    After you find the printer you want, right-click and select CONNECT from the flyout menu. This installs the printer driver and creates the local printer.

    It's problematic whether you'll be able to train users to accept this search window. If you can't, you'll need to deliver the printer connections to them in some other way. That's covered in the next section.

    Automating Client Printer Connections

    You can relieve much of the user pain in creating connections to network print servers by doing it for them in a logon script.

    Here is a three-line Visual Basic (VB) script that adds a printer connection to a Windows Server 2003, XP, 2000, or NT machine:

    set obj = CreateObject("Wscript.Network")
    PrinterShare = "\\<server_name>\<print_share>"

    This kind of scripting works when you want to automate the creation of a network printer connection. If you want to automate installing local printers as well, you can do this by calling the applicable switches on the PrintUI.dll function library. Do this using the Rundll32 utility. The syntax would be as follows:

    rundll32 printui.dll,PrintUIEntry /ia /c\\s21 /m "HP Deskjet 640c" /h "Intel" /v "Windows 
    graphics/ccc.gifServer 2003" /f %windir%\inf\ntprint.inf

    This command would install the HP Deskjet 640c printer on the computer named S21 using the INF script stored locally on the machine. The word PrintUIEntry is case sensitive.

    You can get a list of the PrintUIEntry switches by using the /? switch on the command line as follows:

    rundll32 printui.dll,PrintUIEntry /?

    There are around 50 different switches you can use for this function call. Those in the example are as follows:

    • /ia. Install the printer using an INF script.

    • /c. UNC path to the remote machine.

    • /m. Printer driver name (typically a long string).

    • /h. Printer driver type: Alpha, Intel, IA64.

    • /v. Driver version: Windows NT 4.0, Windows XP or 2000, Windows XP.

    • /f. Name of the INF file.

    Troubleshooting Print Clients

    Corrupted print drivers at the server will affect any new print clients that download the corrupted drivers. If you suspect you have a problem with corrupted printer drivers, try deleting the drivers at the desktop and then installing the drivers locally from CD. If this works but a subsequent reconnection to the server still fails, reinstall the printer at the server. You may need to delete the printer connection at the affected clients, remove the old driver files and reconnect to the printer server to download the fresh drivers.

    Windows Server 2003, XP, and Windows 2000 client connection to a Windows printer server use Remote Procedure Calls. If you experience network problems, these RPC connections can break and cause client printing to fail. After a print client has lost RPC connection, it generally cannot regain it without rebooting the client.

    If you have ongoing RPC problems, you may be tempted to let the clients print directly to the network print devices, if you have them installed. I would urge you to get to the bottom of your network problem because a network interface device just isn't built to handle dozens and dozens of concurrent print requests.

    Printing to a Third-Party Server

    If the third-party network client you install has a print provider, that provider and the third-party print monitor will work together to hand the rendered print job over to the associated server. Print jobs sent to non-Windows servers are always fully rendered locally, so this takes more horsepower at the client.

    If you have multiple print providers, you will get some improvement in initial print performance by sorting the providers in the order they are most likely to be encountered on the network. This is done using the Advanced Settings window in Network Connections. Figure 16.24 shows an example of the print provider list. Use the up and down arrows to reposition the providers. There is no need to restart.

    Figure 16.24. Network Connections Advanced Settings window showing print provider order.


    Printing Over the Internet

    Windows Server 2003, XP, and Windows 2000 support Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) as outlined in a series of RFCs and Internet Drafts. Visit www.normos.org and search for IPP. There are at least a dozen papers on the subject.

    IPP uses HTTP to communicate with a print server. Normal Windows printing uses RPC (Remote Procedure Call) over SMB. This is much faster than IPP but requires a solid network connection. IPP may be slow but it has the advantage of convenience and the capability to print over TCP port 80 through a firewall.

    IPP was developed as a replacement for LPR/LPD, which passes data in clear text. Because IPP uses HTTP, it can be used in conjunction with Transport Layer Security (TLS) to encrypt the data.

    IPP Requirements

    To use IPP on a Windows Server 2003 print server, the server must have Internet Information Server (IIS) service (Inetinfo) loaded. The printer support files are part of the default IIS configuration. They are placed in a virtual folder called Printers in the default web site (see Figure 16.25).

    Figure 16.25. IIS Management console showing the Printers virtual folder in the default web site.


    The ASP pages in the Printers folder contain code that queries for printer information then delivers it to the client via dynamic web pages. Click on a printer to see the current jobs in the queue and other information. Figure 16.26 shows an example.

    Figure 16.26. Printers web listing showing available printers on a print server.


    Because these support files are installed automatically, delivering IPP functionality is simple for an administrator. The process is made even more automatic because Windows clients select the most efficient connection protocol for printing. Local Windows clients that are capable of making RPC connection to the print server use standard Windows printing protocols. Windows clients that come in through a firewall and find that they cannot make RPC connection will fall back on IPP over HTTP if TCP port 80 is open.

    Configuring Client for Internet Printing

    A client can connect to a shared printer over IPP in two ways:

    • The Add Printer Wizard, which requires the user to know the exact URL of the printer

    • A default web page displayed with http://<print_server>/Printers

    Of the two, the second option is probably the one your users will prefer.

    If you insist that they use the Add Printer Wizard, they must enter the URL for the printer in the Locate Your Printer window. Figure 16.27 shows an example.

    Figure 16.27. Add Printer WizardЧLocate Your Printer window showing URL entry.


    The syntax for the URL is as follows:


    The dot before the word printer at the end of the entry is important. Without it, the connection will fail.

    It is much more convenient for a user to select a printer from a graphical listing. If the user is not authenticated on the same domain as the print server, the system prompts for credentials.

    To connect to a particular printer, click the hyperlink for the name. This opens a page that displays the queued print jobs.

    Under the Printer Actions heading at the left edge of the window, click the Connect hyperlink. This downloads the printer drivers. This might take a while because of the slow HTTP protocol.

    IPP Printer Properties

    An IPP printer appears in the Printers and Faxes window of the local client just like a regular network printer. If the user elects to print to an IPP printer and the RPC connection is not available, the file is first fully rendered locally. The file is then passed the print server as raw text over HTTP.

    When you look at the properties of an IPP printer, you'll see that it has these characteristics:

    • The printer name is displayed in Printers and Faxes as <printer> on http://<ip_address>.

    • The Sharing tab displays the message Sharing is not supported for this type of printer.

    • The local port name will have the following structure:

    • The port configuration is essentially a credentials window where the user's name and password are entered. The name must be in the form <domain>\<user_name> so it can be properly interpreted at the IIS virtual folder.

    Otherwise, the printer looks and behaves just like a standard network printer except that it is slower. Also, because the Printers and Faxes window tries to refresh the printer properties when it first initializes, you'll notice that it takes quite a bit longer for the window to open when you have IPP printers.

    In the Printers and Faxes window, when you select a printer icon, the See Also header in the information bar at the left of the window includes an option to connect to the printer's web site. This makes it simple to select another printer from the same print server.

    If you have several print servers on a campus, you can create an intranet web page with hyperlinks to the various print servers. By giving geographical information in the intranet page, you can give your users hints as to where to find their printers.

    Fax Sharing

    Windows 2000 contained a Fax service that permitted a user to send a document to a locally attached fax modem where it would be delivered just as if it were a standard fax. Windows Server 2003 includes a feature from Small Business Server 2000 that expands this Fax functionality by permitting a server to share its fax devices.

    If you have a small- or medium-sized network, you can use this feature to give your users the ability to send documents as faxes without printing and loading them into the fax machine. It is not a replacement for a full-featured enterprise fax solution by any means, but you can't beat the price and convenience.

    Fax Sharing supports both standard fax modems and intelligent fax boards such as the Brooktrout TruFax and TR114 and Intel/Dialogic Gammalink boards. These fax boards range in price from around $400 for a 1-port board to over $5000 for a board with a 24-port PRI (Primary Rate Interface) card and inbound routing features. The Fax service does not support high-end features such as Direct-Inbound-Dialing (DID) and other routing technology, and it is limited to a maximum of 4 ports, so you're best served with a less expensive fax board or fax modems.

    The Fax service presents a shared fax modem as if it were a special kind of printer. Clients connect to this Fax printer using the Add Printers and Faxes window. There are drivers for Windows Server 2003, XP, and Windows 2000 clients.

    The Windows Server 2003 Fax service is backward compatible with the local Windows 2000 fax client and with the Fax Sharing module in Small Business Server. The architecture has been extended considerably, though.

    Fax Service Architecture

    Figure 16.28 shows a diagram of the shared fax architecture used by Windows Server 2003. The fax service consists of a server executable, Fxssvc.exe, that exposes a client API for handling fax requests and a set of connections for delivering the faxes to a fax modem or a printer.

    Figure 16.28. Shared fax architecture.


    The Fax service uses the Telephony API (TAPI) to talk to a fax modem. This means it must interact with other TAPI clients such as networking, telephony, and routing clients. You can use the same modem for faxing as you do for networking, but this is not recommended for a production fax server. Stick to the "one function, one modem" rule.

    The Fax service can also send a fully rendered fax document to a print device via a special fax printer monitor. This monitor communicates either with the local spooler or a network print provider.

    The Fax service also provides a simple set of routing alternatives for inbound faxes. It does not support automated routing based on Direct-Inbound-Dialing (DID) number, nor does it scan the fax header looking for the name of the recipient, as many commercial fax services do, but it can route the fax to a printer, to a file, and to a single user via email. This user can read the fax and forward the email to the designated recipient.

    Fax Boards and Networking

    If you work in a security-conscious environment that does not permit modems on servers because of the threat of back doors into your network, you'll like intelligent fax boards. They only receive calls from fax machines.

    Installing the Fax Service

    Unlike other network functions, the Fax service is not installed by default. Install it using the Add/Remove Programs applet in the Control Panel.

    You'll also need to install either a fax modem or a fax board in the server. Spare yourself hours of teeth gnashing by using a fax modem that is on the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) at www.microsoft.com/hcl. I'm not saying that other fax modems won't work. I'm just saying that digital communications across an analog phone line is a mysterious and arcane technology to begin with, and adding faxing to that mix only makes it more complex. It's best to have the odds in your favor.

    If you have an internal modem or a USB modem, Plug and Play will discover the device and load the drivers. Check the Device Manager console, Devmgmt.msc, to make sure. If you install an external serial modem after starting the machine, it will not be enumerated automatically. You can force a bus scan by right-clicking the icon at the top of the device tree in Device Manager and selecting Scan for Hardware Changes. The modem should be discovered and the drivers loaded automatically. If not, you'll need to supply Windows Server 2003 or 2000 drivers.

    Configuring the Fax Service

    After the fax modem or board is installed and the Fax service is running, you can configure the server settings in one of three ways:

    • Launch the Fax console from START | PROGRAMS | ACCESSORIES | COMMUNICATIONS | FAX. This starts the Fax Configuration Wizard, which walks you through the configuration.

    • From the Printers and Faxes window, select the Add A Local Fax Printer hyperlink. After it is installed, open the Properties window to access the configuration settings.

    • Launch the Fax Service Manager console, Fxsadmin.msc, from START | PROGRAMS | ACCESSORIES | COMMUNICATIONS | FAX and use it to configure the service.

    The Fax Service Manager has more features, so it's the better choice, but it's more convenient to walk through the wizard. It will prompt you for the following:

    • Sender information. This is used to populate fax cover pages.

    • Modem configuration settings. These are used to set the dialing properties of the modem.

    • Sending and receiving properties. This is used to set the Transmitting Service ID (TSID) and Client Service ID (CSID) that are included in fax and displayed on fax units.

    • Routing options. These permit you to decide whether inbound faxes will be printed, stored in a file, routed to a select user by email, or all three.

    • Storage options. You can select the folders for storing received faxes and sent faxes.

    If you walk through the wizard and later want to change something, the sender information and fax storage folders can be modified in the Fax console. The remaining options can be modified in the Fax Service Manager console.

    Setting Modem Properties

    Set the properties of the fax modem or fax board by opening its Properties window in the Fax Service Manager console (see Figure 16.29).

    Figure 16.29. Fax modem Properties window showing TSID, CSID, and automatic answering options.


    If you want your business name and fax number to appear in the header of your outgoing faxes, enter it in the Transmitting Station ID (TSID) field.

    By default, the modem is only configured to send faxes. This is for security reasons. If you want to receive faxes, select that option. If you want your business name and fax number to appear to be displayed at the sender when you receive faxes, enter it in the Calling Station ID (CSID) field.

    Select the number of rings to wait before answering the line. This is set to 1 by default and should be left there unless you are configuring a server for a small business that shares a phone line for faxing and normal office business. In that case, you may want to delay fax pickup a few rings.

    You can also configure the Fax service to pick up the modem when it hears fax modem at the other end of the line. This is called Adaptive Answering and is not supported by all modems. The Fax service makes no attempt to check for the feature on the modem. Check the documentation for your modem to determine if it's worthwhile setting this option.

    Configuring Incoming Fax Handling

    If you highlight the Incoming Methods icon under the fax modem icon, you'll see the three handling methods for incoming faxes. Configure them by opening the Properties window and selecting the tab of the same name. The options are as follows:

    • Print. You can select the name of a printer from the list of printers that have been configured at the server. Any incoming faxes will be sent to that printer. You cannot select multiple printers, and you cannot select a fall-back printer.

    • Store in a Folder. Enter the path to the folder where you want all incoming faxes to reside. This should be a volume with lots and lots of free space. You would be amazed at the rate inbound faxes can accumulate.

    • Route Through E-mail. This option requires you to first perform a receipt setup preparation. See the sidebar, "Email Fax Routing."

    After you configure the options you want to use, be sure to enable each one by right-clicking the icon and selecting ENABLE from the flyout menu.

    Email Fax Routing

    The Fax service does not have Direct-Inbound-Dialing (DID) routing capabilities, but you can choose to have inbound faxes converted into email attachments and sent to a single email address. This could be a special mailbox account like faxadmin@company.com. An office assistant or receptionist could get into this mailbox, glance at the fax, and forward it to the designated recipient.

    For this to work, the Fax service must be set up for SMTP email receipts. Then, you can set up the incoming routing option. This is done via the Fax Service Manager console as follows:

    1. Right-click the Fax (Local) icon at the top of the tree and select PROPERTIES from the flyout menu.

    2. Select the Receipts tab (see Figure 16.30).

      Figure 16.30. Fax Properties window showing the Receipts tab.


    3. Select the Enable SMTP E-mail Receipts Delivery option.

    4. Enter the email address of the intended recipient and the IP address or DNS name of the recipient's email server.

    5. Check the Use This Configuration For The Microsoft Route Through E-Mail Incoming Routing Method option.

    6. Click OK to save the change and close the window.

    7. Open the Properties window for the Route Through E-mail Properties option under Devices and Providers | Devices | <device_name> | Incoming Methods (see Figure 16.31).

      Figure 16.31. Route Through Email Properties window.


    8. Enter the same email address in this window as you used in the SMTP E-mail Receipts Delivery window.

    9. Click OK to save the change and close the window.

    Test the configuration by sending a fax to the fax server and verifying that a copy of the fax is sent to the user via the specified email address.

    You can sort the order of the routing options based on how you would like them to occur. The routing methods are listed under Incoming Routing | Global Methods. Right-click the icon and select MOVE UP or MOVE DOWN to set its place in the order. The system will send the fax to any configured incoming method. The sort order simply sets which one will be done first.

    Connecting a Client to a Fax Server

    Clients can interact with the Fax service in two ways. The most common is to use it just like a print server. The client loads a driver designed to interact with the Fax service running on the server.

    The fax printer drivers in Windows Server 2003 also work for XP and Windows 2000 clients, who will download them automatically.

    The other method of sending a fax is to run an application that takes advantage of the Fax API built into Windows Server 2003. This bypasses the print driver and talks directly to the Fax service itself. Look for applications to start appearing soon after Windows Server 2003 ships.

    Sending a Fax

    A user sends a fax by printing to the Fax printer object or by selecting START | PROGRAMS | ACCESSORIES | COMMUNICATIONS | FAX | SEND A FAX. In either case, the system launches a Send Fax Wizard, Fxssend.exe, that prompts for the recipient name and fax number (see Figure 16.32).

    Figure 16.32. Send Fax Wizard showing Recipient Information window.


    IPP and Fax Printing

    You cannot print to a fax printer over HTTP. If you view the list of printers at http://<server>/Printers, you'll see the Fax printer on the list. However, if you select the hyperlink to the printer, you'll notice that the Connect option is missing.

    The sender can enter the information directly or select contacts from the Windows Address Book, a database stored locally in user's profile under Application Data\Microsoft\Address Book. The user can add new entries in the address book via the Send Fax Wizard or by using the Windows Address Book utility, Wab.exe, launched from START | PROGRAMS | ACCESSORIES | ADDRESS BOOK.

    The recipient information entered in the wizard is used to populate the fax cover page. The Fax service comes with a set of default cover pages stored in the All Users profile under Application Data\Microsoft\Windows NT\MSFax\Common Coverpages. This folder is shared with the share name FxsSrvCp$ so that network clients can access the cover pages when they print to the fax server.

    Cover pages use a special format with variables used to display information about the sender and recipient. See the next section for more information on cover pages.

    You can use the Send Fax Wizard to schedule a fax to be sent immediately, at a specific time, or when discount rates apply. The discount rate schedule is set at the server via the Fax Service Manager console. Open the Properties window for the Fax (Local) icon and select the Outbox tab (see Figure 16.33). The user can also assign a priority to an outbound fax. Queued faxes are sorted in order of priority.

    Figure 16.33. Fax service Properties window showing Outbox tab with dialing and discount rate settings.


    Faxing to Exchange Contacts

    If you are running Exchange, you can use the Global Address List (GAL) to select fax contacts by installing the Fax Transport in Outlook.

    Finally, the user can select delivery notification options. This helps appease users who miss standing next to a physical fax machine and "really really really need to know" when an online fax is actually sent. The user can elect to get a pop-up notification, but this is only useful at the console. The user can also elect to get an email and even put a copy of the fax as an attachment. If the user is sending out a blast fax to multiple recipients, the user can elect to get a single notification.

    The user has the option of viewing the fax before sending it. This launches the Windows Picture and Fax Viewer. This viewer consists of a DLL, Shimgvw.dll, opened under the auspices of Rundll32. When you double-click on a file with an extension registered with this viewer, the full command issued by the system is as follows:

    rundll32 shimgvw.dll,ImageView_Fullscreen <image_file_path>

    The viewer permits you to zoom and rotate and print and open an image editor for modifying the file. The viewer is capable of displaying multi-page documents, enabling you to riffle through a large fax. There are no OCR features to enable you to save the contents to a text file.

    Also, this is a viewer, not an editor. You can launch an editor such as MS Paint from the menu.

    Managing Cover Pages

    Windows Server 2003 comes with a Cover Page Editor, Fxscover.exe, that is designed to create or modify cover pages that are compatible with the Fax service. The editor can be launched from START | PROGRAMS | ACCESSORIES | COMMUNICATION | FAX | FAX COVER PAGE EDITOR. Figure 16.34 shows an example of a cover page opened inside the editor.

    Figure 16.34. Fax cover page opened in the Cover Page Editor.


    The INSERT menu item has options for inserting fields into the cover page representing the sender's name and fax information, the recipient's name and fax information, and other general cover page information. The recipient information is obtained from the Send Fax Wizard or the Windows Address Book. The sender information is obtained from the Registry at the sender's desktop.

    You can modify the sender information using the Fax Console, Fxsclnt.exe, launched from START | PROGRAMS | ACCESSORIES | COMMUNICATIONS | FAX. Select TOOLS | SENDER INFORMATION from the menu (see Figure 16.35).

    Figure 16.35. Fax console showing the Sender Information window.


    You can also use the Fax console to create new cover pages, although it is much easier to copy one of the global cover pages and modify it.

    Managing Fax Queues and Devices

    The Fax Console configures inbound and outbound fax queues and fax devices. The queue interface in the Fax Console has four buckets that act as windows to the spooled contents on the drive:

    • Incoming. These are faxes that have been received by the fax device but not yet processed.

    • Inbox. These are faxes that have been processed. By default, files older than 90 days are deleted automatically.

    • Outgoing. These are outbound faxes that are waiting for delivery to the recipient.

    • Sent Items. These are copies of all outbound faxes. By default, files older than 1 day are deleted.

    Faxes in the queues can be viewed using the Windows Picture and Fax Viewer. You can change the automatic deletion intervals using the Fax Service Manager console.

    Fax Activity Monitoring

    You can view the activity of a fax server via a program called the Fax Monitor, Fxsmntr.exe. Launch this utility from the main Fax Console menu via TOOLS | FAX MONITOR. A small graphic opens that shows pulses going back and forth between the fax server and fax clients.

    Rather than watch this graphic all day long, you'll probably want to keep a log. The Fax service keeps two different logs:

    • Activity log. This log records the sender, recipient, time, and filename of the rendered fax document. The Activity log is located in the All Users profile under Application Data\Microsoft\Windows NT\MSFax\ActivityLog. You can change this location using the Fax Service Manager.

    • Event log. The Fax service places warnings, errors, and critical events in the Application log where they can be viewed by the Event Viewer.

    That's about it for configuring and managing fax services. Let's turn our attention back to printing and see how to manage print services.

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