• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Connecting to Shared Folders

    You can share all the folders you want, but if users cannot find them with a minimum of fuss, you might as well be selling whiskey at a Methodist revival meeting.

    Windows Server 2003 provides three ways to locate shared file resources: browsing, Active Directory publishing, and the Distributed File System (Dfs). The first two options are covered here. The Distributed File System is covered later in this chapter in section, "Resource Sharing with the Distributed File System."

    Browsing

    Browsing has been a feature of Windows networking for many years. It's a clumsy but serviceable way to locate servers and their shared resources.

    Every network segment has at least one browser, called the Subnet Master Browser. Servers register their names with the Subnet Master Browser when they come onto the network. The database of server names maintained by the Subnet Master Browser is called a Browse list.

    When a user opens My Network Places or views a resource list under Map Network Drive, the network client requests a copy of the Browse list from the Subnet Master Browser. The list of servers in the interface comes from that Browse list.

    Any Windows computer with file sharing enabled can be a master browser or a backup browser. This includes Windows for Workgroups, Windows 9x/ME, all versions of NT, Windows 2000, XP, and Windows Server 2003. Master browsers are selected on the basis of a browse election. The results depend on a hierarchy designed to rig the election in favor of servers over desktops and domain controllers over servers and NT-based operating systems over Windows 9x/3.x operating systems.

    It's possible that the Subnet Master Browser could get too busy to handle client requests. To get help, it behaves like a Revolutionary-era British merchant captain and presses other servers into action as backup browsers. The master browser replicates the latest Browse list to the backup browsers then refers client requests to them in round-robin fashion for load sharing.

    Servers who toss their hat into the ring for the election to master browser are called potential browsers. If a potential browser loses the election, it becomes a candidate to be a backup browser. Each time 32 additional clients come on the wire, the master browser selects another backup browser.

    In a routed TCP/IP environment, the Subnet Master Browsers replicate their Browse lists to the primary domain controller (PDC), which also acts as the Domain Master Browser. In an Active Directory domain, the PDC Emulator is the Domain Master Browser. The Domain Master Browser consolidates the Browse lists and redistributes the result to the Subnet Master Browsers, which in turn replicate them to the backup browsers.

    Searching Instead of Browsing

    In a large enterprise with hundreds or thousands of servers, it can take quite a while to open My Network Places to find a particular computer. It's much faster to use the Search utility from the Start menu. The Search feature searches the browse database, not DNS or Active Directory. Search for a computer as follows:

    1. From the Search window, select the Printers, Computers, or People link in the left side of the window.

    2. Click the Computer on the Network link.

    3. Enter the flat name for the computer.

    4. When and if the computer is found, double-click it to see the shared resources.

    Troubleshooting Browsing Problems

    Aside from printing and security, browsing is the network function that causes the most grief for system administrators. It's fairly straightforward to troubleshoot browsing failures, but it's important to keep the basic functionality in mind.

    This is easy because most of the technology in legacy Windows parallels Dr. Seuss stories. Browsing was designed by someone who was raised on Yertle the Turtle. Remember Yertle's catch phrase? "I'm Yertle the Turtle, oh marvelous me. I am the master of all I can see, and nobody's head can see higher than me."

    A Subnet Master Browser can see only the servers on its subnet, so its copy of the browse database only lists those servers. The Domain Master Browser can see all the Subnet Master Browsers, so his database contains all the servers, but only when he has obtained copies of the local browse databases. There is potentially a different master browser for each transport protocol, making it possible to have several Yertles in each local LAN or subnet.

    Finally, If you try to put too many subnets into the same browsing database, the whole structure will come tumbling down and the browse master will become the master of mud, because that's all he can see.

    Browsing, when it works, gives users a quick and convenient way to find servers and their resources. Browsing is much more complex than it first seems, though, and this complexity makes it somewhat confusing to users. Here is a list of browsing's most glaring deficiencies:

    • Windows clients query the browse master for the first transport in the binding order. This often results in two machines sitting side by side that display different server lists.

    • Browser registrations, browse elections, and Browse list queries cause a significant amount of broadcast traffic. Every network client in the subnet must process those broadcasts.

    • Browse list replication has significant latency. It can take as much as 51 minutes for a downed server to disappear from a Browse list. During this time, the dead server continues to appear in My Network Places.

    • Browsing in a TCP/IP network depends on Windows Internet Name Service (WINS), which is itself a little creaky at the joints. The Subnet Master Browsers locate the Domain Master Browser by querying WINS for the master browser record. In turn, the PDC locates the Subnet Master Browsers by their entries in WINS. If WINS gets unstable or is unavailable, browsing will soon suffer.

    It is theoretically possible to eliminate browsing from your network by providing an alternate way of locating servers and their resources. One way to do this is by publishing the shares in Active Directory. As we'll see, this method leaves a bit to be desired, so a better solution is the Distributed File System.

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