• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Reparse Points

    A reparse point acts like a miniature "redirector" inside an individual MFT record. The reparse point contains the name of a folder, volumes, or device such as a CD-ROM or DVD. When the MFT record containing the reparse point is opened, the target of the reparse point is opened instead. Using reparse points, it is possible to represent volumes and drives as folders, eliminating the need for additional drive letters and share points.

    You have already encountered reparse points at least once in your deployment of Windows Server 2003. Every time you open the Sysvol folder on a domain controller and drill down through a folder with a domain name, you're going through a reparse point. The \Windows\Sysvol\Sysvol\Domain_Name folder actually mounts a folder at \Windows\Sysvol\Domain.

    If you open a command prompt and pull a directory of the contents of the \Windows\Sysvol\Sysvol folder, you'll see that the file type shows up as <JUNCTION> rather than <DIR>. This is how the command shell identifies a reparse point. Another term is a mount point.

    If you create a mount point that points at a device such as a CD-ROM or DVD, Explorer uses the icon representing the AutoRun executable on the media to give a hint about the nature of the device at the other end of the mount point.

    Microsoft also uses reparse points to support the hierarchical storage management features in Remote Storage Services, or RSS. In RSS, a file physically resides on a tape library with a stub, in the form of a reparse point, left behind on the disk to act as a pointer.

    Functional Description of Reparse Points

    A reparse point is simply an attribute called $Reparse_Point inserted into a standard directory record in place of an $Index_Allocation attribute. The $Reparse_Point attribute contains an identifier that tells the system what is being mounted and a symbolic link to the target. A symbolic link is an operating system construct inside the object namespace. You can view the contents of the object namespace using WINOBJ from the Platform SDK or a utility of the same name (but more features) from www.sysinternals.com.

    Figure 15.16 shows a diagram of the components involved in reparse point transactions. The mount point is always a standard folder. The target, in this case, is a folder on another volume in the machine. Any local volume or device that has a mountable file system is fair game as the target of a reparse point. You cannot create reparse points for network file systems.

    Figure 15.16. Reparse Point components.

    graphics/15fig16.gif

    The target volume or device can be formatted with any file system supported by Windows Server 2003. This includes FAT, FAT32, NTFS, CDFS, UDFS, or RSS_FS. The volume can contain compressed files, encrypted files, and sparse files.

    Information about the target file system is stored in a hidden database under the Root directory called $RemoteMountManager. Vendors can add file system filter drivers to this database for use when opening a particular device. The database is a named data stream in the $Reparse metadata record.

    The $Reparse record also maintains an index that correlates the contents of the Remote Mount Manager database and any MFT records that contain a symbolic link reference in a $Reparse_Point attribute.

    Using this information, when a user double-clicks on a mount point, the file system simply opens the MFT record for the mount point, makes note of the symbolic link, checks for filter drivers in the Remote Mount Manager database, then opens the volume or device and presents the contents as if they were part of the file system containing the mount point.

    One use for this technology is CD-ROM towers. If you tire of creating a logical drive for every CD-ROM in a tower then mapping your users to those drives one by one, you can leave all that behind with a Madison Avenue flourish by creating mount points in an existing volume that point to each drive in the CD-ROM tower. Users access the CD-ROM drives via folders under a share point, just as if they were opening folders on a hard drive.

    For step-by-step procedures to create and manage reparse points, see the "Reparse Point Operations" section later in this chapter.

    Reparse Points Highlights

    Here are some key points to remember about reparse points:

    • If a folder record has any file or directory entries, it cannot be used as a mount point. The folder must be completely empty.

    • Explorer does not add the capacity of the mounted volume to the capacity of the source volume when displaying drive utilization or free space. This means you can mount a 30GB drive from an existing 4GB volume, call it Drive D, but Explorer and the command line will continue to report the size of Drive D as 4GB.

    • A search of the parent volumeЧor running a DOS utility such as TREEЧincludes the contents of any mounted volumes.

    • A volume can be accessed by several mount points. Be careful if you do this. There is great potential for confusion and grief. Imagine the Help Desk call if you have two mount points under separate share points that link to the same target volume. The phone call goes something like this. "I copied all my files to my K:\MyData folder and then deleted my R:\MyData and now I can't see any files in K:\MyData. What happened?"

    • Copying a folder with mounted volumes also copies the contents of the mounted volumes.

    • Removing a mount point using the RD command only deletes the MFT record containing the reparse point, not the underlying volume. If, however, you delete a mount point using DEL or you use Explorer to send the mount point to the Recycle Bin or delete to it entirely, all the files and directories in the mounted volume are deleted.

    • When backing up volumes with mount points, the backup includes files and directories on the mounted volumes. Keep this in mind when mounting a volume at multiple mount points. You could end up backing up the same volume several times. Ntbackup has the option to skip restoration from junction points and the files under those junction points.

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