• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems

    Now that we've seen how the LDM works, let's use it to configure storage alternatives. The primary means for converting and configuring spinning storage is the Disk Management console, Diskmgmt.msc.

    The snap-in for this console is included in the Computer Management console. You can open the Computer Management console via START | PROGRAMS | ADMINISTRATIVE TOOLS | COMPUTER MANAGEMENT.

    You can also open the Computer Management console by right-clicking the My Computer icon and selecting MANAGE from the flyout menu.

    The Disk Management console does not manipulate the disk configuration directly. It communicates with the Logical Disk Server service via the Logical Disk Manager Administrator program, Dmadmin, which launches in concert with the Disk Management console. This means you can also manage disks on remote servers.

    Figure 14.4 shows the interface for the Disk Management console. The text portion at the top of the Disk Management console window shows information about each logical partition and/or volume. The graphical portion of the window shows a long bar for each disk with a status box to the left. If you right-click the graphical bar on an existing partition or volume, you'll get options to format it, assign or change a drive letter, or delete it. If you right-click unallocated space, you'll get options to create a partition or volume (basic or dynamic disk). You can also view the properties of the disk.

    Figure 14.4. Disk Management console showing volumes and parameters.

    graphics/14fig04.gif

    You can also perform just about any operation from the command line that you can perform using the Disk Management console. The Diskpart utility in the Support Tools provides a text-based console for this purpose. You can use this console for speed and convenience when managing remote servers, and you can script with it. See "Command-Line Disk Management," near the end of this section, for details.

    Selecting the Correct Disk Configuration

    Windows Server 2003 has a variety of disk configurations to choose from. For basic disks, you have two options:

    • Primary partition. Use this option if you have a single disk that you want to divide into one or more logical drives. You may want multiple drives to keep the operating system separate from data, or to segregate data from different sources, or to limit the size of a partition. Creating a single partition for a 500GB array, for example, forces the file system to track a very large number of clusters and increases seek time.

    • Extended partition. Use this option if you want to boot from DOS or Windows 9x and see files in a partition other than the primary partition that boots the operating system. If you use Windows 2000 or NT exclusively, you do not need extended partitions unless you want more than four logical drives.

    If you use dynamic disks, you have many additional options. Figure 14.5 shows the Disk Management console for a system where just about all of these options have been selected:

    • Simple volume. Use this option if you have a single dynamic disk that you want to divide into one or more logical drives.

    • Spanned volume. Use this option if you have a hardware RAID array that you've expanded with additional drives and you want to keep the same volume name and drive letter. You should not span volumes between physical drives because it increases the likelihood of losing data.

    • Striped volume. Use this option if you don't care about fault tolerance and want fast I/O. This is a popular configuration with CAD and multimedia workstations where work files are saved locally throughout the day and then copied to a file server at night for backup. You may not see much of a performance improvement on IDE unless you use separate controllers. You can also improve performance on SCSI by using separate controllers if you have several drives in the striped volume.

    • Mirrored volume. Use this option if you want good performance along with fault tolerance. Use separate controllers for maximum performance and to improve fault tolerance in the event of a controller failure. Mirroring is not available on XP Professional.

    • RAID 5 volume. Use this option when you want fault tolerance and large logical drives where mirroring is not cost effective. This option is not available on XP Professional.

    Figure 14.5. Disk Management console showing a system with nearly all dynamic disk configuration options.

    graphics/14fig05.jpg

    The next few sections contain the steps for creating these configurations.

    Creating Primary Partitions on Basic Disks

    If you create a second primary partition on a dual-boot machine, downlevel operating systems such as DOS and Win9x cannot see the partition. A disk can have a maximum of four primary partitions. To create primary partitions on basic disks, follow Procedure 14.1.

    Procedure 14.1 Creating Primary Partitions on Basic Disks

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the graphic bar representing the disk you want to partition and select CREATE PARTITION from the flyout menu. The New Partition Wizard opens.

    3. Click Next. The Select Partition Type window opens.

    4. Select the Primary Partition radio button.

    5. Click Next. The Specify Partition Size window opens. Enter a size for the partition in megabytes. The minimum size displayed in the window is only a guideline. You should not create very small partitions except for testing.

    6. Click Next. The Assign Drive Letter or Path window opens.

      Normally, you would leave the selection at the next available drive letter and be done with it. The Mount This Volume at an Empty Folder... option makes use of NTFS reparse points to mount the partition at a folder in an existing NTFS drive.

    7. Click Next. The Format Partition window opens. Select a file system to use for formatting.

    8. Click Next. A window summarizes your selections.

    9. Click Finish to create and format the partition.

    The Disk Management console now displays information about the new partition.

    Creating an Extended Partition and Logical Drives

    A disk can have only one extended partition. The entire disk can be configured as an extended partition, if you desire, but only for data drives. The system files (those used to boot the system) must reside in a primary partition. Follow Procedure 14.2.

    Procedure 14.2 Creating Extended Partitions and Logical Drives

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the unallocated space where you want to create the extended partition and select CREATE PARTITION from the flyout menu. The New Partition Wizard opens.

    3. Click Next. The Select Partition Type window opens.

    4. Select the Extended Partition radio button.

    5. Click Next. The Specify Partition Size window opens. Enter a size for the partition in megabytes.

    6. Click Next. A window summarizes your changes.

    7. Click Finish to save the configuration and create the extended partition.

    8. When the partition has been created, you must create at least one logical drive to get useful storage. Right-click the green area in the graphic representing the extended partition and select CREATE LOGICAL DRIVE from the flyout menu. The New Partition Wizard opens.

    9. Click Next. The Select Partition Type window opens with the Logical Drive radio button selected by default.

    10. Click Next. The Specify Partition Size window opens. Enter a size.

    11. Click Next. The Assign Drive Letter or Path window opens. Assign a drive letter or select a volume and directory to use as a mount point.

    12. Click Next. The Format Partition window opens.

    13. Select a file system to format the partition.

    14. Click Next. A window summarizes your selections.

    15. Click Finish to accept the settings and create and format the logical drive.

    The Disk Management console now displays the extended partition and its logical drive. You can create additional logical drives to the extent that you have free space available. The only limit to the number of logical drives is the number of drive letters that you have available, and even that isn't a limit if you use mount points without assigning drive letters.

    Extending a Basic Disk Partition

    You can increase the size of a basic disk partition as long as you have contiguous, unallocated space. You cannot use the Disk Management console, though. You must use the Diskpart command-line utility that comes in the Support Tools. The steps are listed in Procedure 14.3. The entries shown in each step are the commands you enter in the Diskpart console.

    Procedure 14.3 Expanding a Basic Disk Partition Using Diskpart

    1. Open a command console.

    2. Launch Diskpart. This opens a text-based console.

    3. List the disks in the machine: list disk.

    4. Select the disk containing the partition you want to expand: select disk 0.

    5. List the partitions on the disk: list partition.

    6. Find the amount of free space on the disk: detail volume.

    7. Find the order of the partitions and their size: list volume

    8. Select the partition you want to expand: select partition 1

      The partition you want to expand must have unallocated space adjoining it. This is not possible to determine from Diskpart, so if you have reason to suspect that a disk might have non-contiguous unallocated space between partitions, you'll need to get a snapshot using the Disk Management console.

    9. Expand the partition by specifying the amount of additional space you want to add in megabytes: expand size=1024.

    10. Verify the new partition size using CHKDSK or Explorer.

    Converting a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk

    Review the checklist presented earlier in the chapter to ensure you meet the prerequisites and requirements for converting a basic disk, and then proceed as directed in Procedure 14.4.

    Procedure 14.4 Converting a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the disk status portion of the disk graphic and select CONVERT TO DYNAMIC DISK from the flyout menu. The Convert to Dynamic Disk window opens.

    3. Verify that the disk you selected has been checkmarked.

    4. Click OK. The Disks to Convert window opens. Verify that the proper disk is listed.

    5. Click Convert. You'll be prompted to confirm.

    6. Click OK to begin the conversion. If you are converting a disk that contains system, boot, paging, or crash dump files, you'll be prompted to restart.

    7. After restart, if applicable, you'll be prompted to restart again because the Plug-and-Play Manager sees dynamic disks as a new device.

    Following the second restart, you can create a new simple volume on the disk. If you have other dynamic disks in the machine, you can use the unallocated space on the disk to form volumes involving other disks.

    Creating Simple Volumes on Dynamic Disks

    You can create several simple volumes on a single dynamic disk, if you need to have multiple logical drives. You can also span the volume at a later time if it is not a system or boot volume. To do create simple volumes, follow Procedure 14.5.

    Procedure 14.5 Creating Simple Volumes

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the unallocated space where you want to create the volume and select CREATE VOLUME from the flyout menu. The New Volume Wizard opens.

    3. Click Next. The Select Volume Type window opens.

    4. Select the Simple Volume radio button.

    5. Click Next. The Select Disks window opens (see Figure 14.6). Enter the size of the volume.

      Figure 14.6. New Volume WizardSelect Disks window.

      graphics/14fig06.gif

    6. Click Next. The Assign Drive Letter or Path window opens. Assign a drive letter or mount the volume at an empty folder on an NTFS drive.

    7. Click Next. The Format Volume window opens. The only format offered is NTFS. You must use the FORMAT command to select another file system type.

    8. Click Next. A window summarizes the options you selected.

    9. Click Finish. The volume is created and formatted.

    Extending (Spanning) Volumes Between Dynamic Disks

    You can extend an existing simple volume by spanning it to unallocated space elsewhere on the disk or on another disk. You cannot span the boot volume or the system volume. Follow Procedure 14.6 to configure a spanned volume.

    Procedure 14.6 Configuring a Spanned Volume

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the simple volume you want to extend and select EXTEND VOLUME from the flyout menu. The Extend Volume Wizard opens.

    3. Click Next. The Select Disks window opens. Select the disk you want to include in the span. Only dynamic disks appear on the list. You can span to any dynamic disk that has free space.

    4. Click Next. A window summarizes the options you selected.

    5. Click Finish. The volume is created and formatted.

    The Disk Management console displays the results. Note that when you extend a basic partition, the result is a new partition. When you extend a dynamic volume, even to contiguous space on the same drive, a new volume is created. This does not cause a fault tolerance issue unless the volumes are on different disks.

    Creating Striped Volumes

    If you want lots of storage space with great performance and you aren't concerned about fault tolerance, configure a striped volume. You must have at least two dynamic disks with unallocated space. Use separate controllers for maximum performance. To configure a striped volume, follow the steps in Procedure 14.7.

    Procedure 14.7 Creating Striped Volumes

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the free space you want to include in the striped volume and select CREATE VOLUME from the flyout menu. The New Volume Wizard opens.

    3. Click Next. The Select Volume Type window opens.

    4. Select the Striped radio button.

    5. Click Next. The Select Disks window opens. Select at least one other disk that you want to include in the volume. Only dynamic disks will appear on the list. You can stripe to any dynamic disk that has free space. The total space taken on any disk equals the smallest free space on any selected disk.

    6. Click Next. The Assign Drive Letter or Path window opens.

    7. Assign a drive letter or mount to an empty folder on an NTFS volume.

    8. Click Next. The Format Volume window opens. The only option is NTFS.

    9. Click Next. A window summarizes the options you selected.

    10. Click Finish. The volume is created and formatted with the file system you selected.

    Creating Mirrored Volumes

    When mirroring drives, leave a little extra free space when you partition the first drive. Drives with the same specs, even drives from the same manufacturer, often have different useful capacities depending on manufacturing tolerances and the total number of bad sectors identified during low-level formatting. If the secondary disk is just one sector shy of the primary, the system will refuse to mirror. Procedure 14.8 shows how to create mirrored volumes.

    Procedure 14.8 Creating Mirrored Volumes

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the volume you want to mirror and select ADD MIRROR from the flyout menu. The Add Mirror window opens.

    3. Select the disk you want to use for a mirror and click Add Mirror.

      If you mirror the boot disk, the system sends a message prompting you to add a line to your Boot.ini file to enable booting from the mirrored disk. For example, here is a Boot.ini entry to boot to the second disk on the same SCSI controller as the primary drive (the text wording is mine. You can put anything you like):

      
      multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(1)\Windows="Windows Server 2003 Mirrored Secondary Disk" 
      graphics/ccc.gif/fastdetect
      

      If the mirrored drive has never been configured with a classic bootable partition prior to the mirroring, you cannot use it to boot the system.

    4. Click OK to acknowledge the message. The system begins building the mirror. This is indicated by a Regenerating status in the graphic for the two disks.

    Regeneration copies the contents of the primary disk to the secondary disk sector by sector. This can take a long time for a big volume. You can allow users to access the file system while it is regenerating, but this slows down the regeneration. After the volume has regenerated, the status shows as Healthy in the Disk Management console.

    Breaking a Mirrored Volume

    If you need to break a mirrored volume, you have the choice of breaking the mirror or removing it. If you break the mirror, here's what happens:

    • The file system is left intact on both volumes, yielding two exact replicas.

    • The volume on the secondary disk is given the next available drive letter.

    • If the primary volume was a boot volume, it retains the paging file.

    • If another volume was mounted to a folder in the mirrored drive, the primary drive hosts the mount point.

    • File shares on folders in the mirrored volume are retained by the primary volume.

    If you choose to remove the mirror, you can delete the replica on either or both disks. The volume you retain keeps the same drive letter.

    Breaking a mirror is the easy part. Recovering from the consequences can get a little tricky. If the mirror includes the boot volume, you may encounter a couple of problems after you break the mirror.

    Procedure 14.9 shows the steps to break a mirror.

    Procedure 14.9 Breaking a Mirrored Volume

    1. Load the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the mirrored volume and select BREAK MIRROR from the flyout menu.

    3. The system prompts for verification and reminds you that the volumes will no longer be fault tolerant. Click Yes to acknowledge.

    4. If you break the mirror of the boot disk, the system also warns that the volume is in use and prompts for verification that you want to proceed. Click Yes.

    5. The system breaks the mirror and assigns the next available drive letter to the volume on the secondary disk.

    Now that the mirror is broken, try booting to the second disk. You may find that you get an Inaccessible Boot Device error. This is because the secondary drive had never been partitioned as a boot drive, so it lacks an entry in the partition table of the MBR. If this happens, use the Diskpart utility to put a partition on the drive.

    First, boot to the mirrored drive using a fault tolerant boot floppy. Then load the Diskpart console and issue the following commands (the example assumes the disk is the first disk in the array and the volume is the first on the disk):

    DISKPART> Select Disk 0
    DISKPART> Select Volume 1
    DISKPART> Retain
    

    You may also experience a problem because the drive letter is incorrect. The system expects to boot to the C: drive. If you boot to the mirrored drive, the drive letter will be something other than C, which can cause strange problems.

    You can avoid this problem, but it takes a little advanced planning. When you're ready to break the mirror, boot to the secondary volume using a fault tolerant boot floppy. Now, use the Disk Management console to break the mirror. In this case, the secondary volume will be assigned the C: drive and life is sweet.

    Creating RAID 5 Volumes

    If you have at least three dynamic disks with free space, you can configure them into a single RAID 5 volume. The volume size is limited by the available free space on the smallest disk. For example, if you have two 4GB disks and one 2GB disk, the resultant RAID 5 volume would be 6GB total space, 4GB effective space. To do this, follow Procedure 14.10.

    Procedure 14.10 Creating RAID 5 Volumes

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the graphic for one of the disks you want to include in the striped volume and select CREATE VOLUME from the flyout menu. The New Volume Wizard opens.

    3. Click Next. The Select Volume Type window opens.

    4. Select the RAID 5 radio button.

    5. Click Next. The Select Disks window opens. Select at least two other disks you want to include in the volume.

    6. Click Next. The Assign Drive Letter or Path window opens.

    7. Assign a drive letter or an empty volume on an NTFS volume.

    8. Click Next. The Format Volume window opens. The only option is NTFS.

    9. Click Next. A window summarizes the options you selected.

    10. Click Finish. The volume is created and formatted with the file system you selected.

    Deleting Volumes Containing Mount Points

    If you delete a volume that contains an NTFS mount point, the data in the mounted volume is not affected. You can go back later and mount the volume to another folder or give it a letter of its own.

    It takes a while for the system to generate the volume (the interface shows the status as regenerating) and format it with a file system. If you have very large drives, plan on taking a long lunch.

    Deleting a Volume

    LDM does not permit changing the size of any volume other than a simple volume. If you want to change the size of a volume, you'll need to delete and recreate it. When you're sure you have a good backup, follow the steps in Procedure 14.11.

    Procedure 14.11 Deleting a Volume

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the volume you want to remove and select DELETE VOLUME from the flyout menu.

    3. The system prompts to verify the action. Click Yes.

    4. If you get an error saying that the volume is currently in use, you should cancel out of the action and locate the open files. If you don't spot anything obvious, look for processes in the Task List that might have a lock on the volume. Antivirus programs are notorious for this.

    5. After the volume has been deleted, the Disk Management console shows free space on the disk.

    Reverting a Dynamic Disk to a Basic Disk

    You cannot revert a dynamic disk back to a basic disk after converting it. Unlike Windows 2000, the LDM in Windows Server 2003 makes permanent changes to the partition table. You must back up the data and remove all volumes first. This includes any participation in striped, spanned, mirrored, or RAID 5 volumes. Then, you can select the disk and convert it to a basic disk. If the operating system is on the disk, you'll need to re-install the operating system. During Setup, delete all existing partitions.

    Changing Drive Letters

    Windows has always been cantankerous in the way it assigns logical drive letters. Chapter 1, "Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003," has a breakdown of the algorithm used by the system to assign drive letters. After installation, though, drive letters can change. This may come as a surprise to you if you are accustomed to working only with Windows 98 or ME.

    In Windows Server 2003 and XP, drive letters change when detachable disks come on- and offline. The same is true for removable media drives. When media is in place during boot, the drive appears and gets a letter. When the media is not in place, the drive does not appear and some other drive might get the same letter.

    You might also get awkward drive letter assignments because you forgot to disconnect network drives prior to creating a new partition or volume.

    For fixed drives, once you assign a drive letter, it stays in place. This is true even if you upgrade a machine from an earlier version of Windows. This maintains storage access for applications that might have Registry entries that include a drive letter.

    If you want to change the drive letter associated with a particular drive, you can do this in the Disk Management console. Consider a few precautions:

    • You cannot change the letter of volumes or partitions containing boot or system files.

    • Changing the letter of a drive can cause applications to fail. You may need to change Registry information for the application.

    • Changing a drive letter causes all shared directories on that volume to fail. The Registry entries are stored as share names in the Registry key HKLM | System | CurrentControlSet | Services | LanManServer | Shares. Write them down or take a screen shot before you change the drive letter. Forgetting to replace a share can cause many irate Help Desk calls.

    • If you have shortcuts to files and directories on NTFS volumes and partitions, the Distributed Link Tracking system automatically changes the shortcuts if the files are moved or renamed. If you change the drive letter, the link tracking system will not automatically update its database. However, link tracking clients fall back on a "best-guess" response that could include the new drive letter.

    • Mount points (folders that contain symbolic links to file systems on other folders) are unaffected by drive letter changes. The internal database uses GUIDs, not drive letters.

    The example in Procedure 14.12 shows how to change the drive letter of a CD-ROM drive. You can use the same technique to change the drive letter for a fixed disk or removable media disk.

    Registry Tip: Mount Point Information

    The Registry values containing mount point information are stored under HKCU | Software | Microsoft | Windows | CurrentVersion | Explorer | MountPoints.

    Procedure 14.12 Changing Drive Letters

    1. Open the Disk Management console.

    2. Right-click the drive icon in the text section or the bar or the status block in the graphic section and select CHANGE DRIVE LETTER AND PATH from the flyout menu. The Drive Letter and Path window opens.

    3. Click Modify. The Modify Drive Letter or Path window opens.

    4. Select a new drive letter from the Assign a Drive Letter drop-down box.

    5. Click OK to save the change. You'll be prompted to confirm. Click Yes. Changes are made to the Registry that appear in the Disk Management console.

    Command-Line Disk Management

    Windows Server 2003 includes a powerful and convenient tool for managing disk configurations. This is the Diskpart utility, which comes in the Support Tools on the Windows Server 2003 CD. Using Diskpart, you can create, configure, and delete all basic partitions and dynamic volumes both locally and on remote machines.

    The utility is structured to be a text-based console with a set of namespaces that you navigate using interactive commands. You can string commands together to select operation targets, get a quick parameter listing, and perform operations. For example, to list all the partitions and volumes on a disk, the syntax would be the following:

    DISKPART> select disk 0
    Disk 0 is now the selected disk.
    
    DISKPART> detail disk
    Maxtor 90651U2
    Disk ID: 30063005
    Type   : IDE
    Bus    : 0
    Target : 0
    LUN ID : 0
    
      Volume ###  Ltr  Label        Fs     Type        Size      Status     Info
              -       -    -            -       -     -
      Volume 1     C                NTFS   Partition   4103 MB   Healthy    System
      Volume 2     E                NTFS   Partition   196 MB    Healthy
      Volume 3     F                       Partition   502 MB    Healthy
    
    Creating a Basic Disk Partition

    Here are the Diskpart commands for creating a basic disk partition. You can format the partition from the command line using the FORMAT utility. The commands are the following:

    DISKPART> Select Disk 0
    DISKPART> Create Partition Primary Size=2048
    DISKPART> Assign Letter=h
    DISKPART> Exit
    C:\>format h: /fs:ntfs
    

    Note that you can use Diskpart to assign or change drive letters. If you hassle periodically with drive letter changes caused by removable or detachable media drives, you can create batch files to rearrange your drive letters for each configuration.

    Creating a Dynamic Volume

    You can use Diskpart to create striped and RAID 5 volumes and to mirror an existing simple volume. Here is an example for creating a RAID 5 volume:

    DISKPART> List Disk
      Disk ###  Status      Size          Free     Dyn  Gpt
                       -     -   -   -
    * Disk 0    Online       6142 MB  1341 MB   *
      Disk 1    Online      12288 MB  12288 MB  *
      Disk 2    Online      12288 MB  12288 MB  *
      Disk 3    Online      12288 MB  12288 MB  *
    
    DISKPART> Create Volume Raid Disk=1,2,3
    
    Extending a Basic Disk Partition

    Diskpart can also extend basic partitions and dynamic volumes. The same restrictions that apply to the use of the Disk Management console also apply here. (Note: Diskpart uses the word volume to encompass both basic partitions and dynamic volumes.)

    The following commands add 2GB onto an existing basic partition; it can be a system or boot partition:

    DISKPART> list volume
    DISKPART> select volume #
    DISKPART> extend size=2048
    

    You would use the same command to span an existing simple dynamic volume, but the volume cannot hold system or boot files.

    Additional Diskpart Operations

    In addition to the previous examples, you can use Diskpart to perform the following operations:

    • Convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk and vice-versa.

    • Perform operations on GPT disks.

    • Delete volumes and partitions (with little or no verification, so be careful).

    • Import foreign disks into the local LDM database.

    • Create a partition table entry in the MBR corresponding to a volume in the LDM. This is used to make a dynamic disk bootable if it has never been a basic disk.

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