• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Loss of Key Replication Components

    When a domain controller fails, its replication partners realize that it has stopped responding to update requests. The partners notify their KCC service, which sets to work creating connection objects that bypass the failed DC, something like Department of Transportation workers directing traffic around an accident.

    When the failed domain controller returns to service, its replication partners realize that it is available once again and they inform their KCC service. The KCC rebuilds the connection objects to the domain controller and tears down the bypass.

    This work can take a little time, so be patient. You should eventually see a note in the Event log that the KCC was able to create the connection objects and the DRA was able to sync up the naming contexts.

    The situation gets a little more complicated if the failed domain controller has special inter-site replication duties. This includes bridgehead servers and Inter-site Topology Generator servers.

    Selecting a New Preferred Bridgehead Server

    Replication between sites is performed by selected domain controllers called bridgeheads. Under normal circumstances, the KCC handles the loss of a bridgehead server with no administrator intervention. It sorts through the available domain controllers in order of their Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) and selects the server with the highest GUID.

    You may want the KCC to select bridgeheads from a certain group of servers. For instance, it is best to have a Global Catalog server acting as a bridgehead so the partial naming contexts can be replicated in a single hop to the next site. You might want to limit the candidate list to GC servers.

    Designate a domain controller as a preferred bridgehead server using the server properties in AD Sites and Services. Chapter 7, "Managing Active Directory Replication," has detailed steps for this operation. Figure 10.2 shows the bridgehead selection window from Active Directory Sites and Services.

    Figure 10.2. AD Sites and Services console showing server Properties window with preferred bridgehead selection for the IP transport.

    graphics/10fig02.gif

    Always designate at least two preferred bridgehead servers. If you select only one, and it fails, all replication will stop until you select another. If the last available bridgehead server goes down, you must select a new preferred bridgehead quickly so replication can recommence.

    Selecting a New Inter-Site Topology Generator

    The loss of an ISTG does not present an immediate problem. The only real chore the ISTG needs to do is create connections between bridgehead servers. This is not done very frequently. Still, you don't want the failure to go unhealed.

    The ISTG informs its replication partners of its presence by updating an attribute in its object every thirty minutes. If an hour goes by without an update, the KCC on the other domain controllers in the site realize that the ISTG is no longer available and they set to work selecting another.

    The ISTG can be identified using the Properties window for the NTDS Site Settings objects in AD Sites and Services. Figure 10.3 shows an example.

    Figure 10.3. NTDS Site Settings object properties showing the ISTG server for the selected site.

    graphics/10fig03.gif

    The KCC uses the same algorithm to select a new ISTG as it does to select a new bridgehead. It selects the domain controller in the site with the highest GUID. In the case of the ISTG, however, there is no "preferred" domain controller setting.

    Verifying Replicas with DSASTAT

    After you get replication working, it's a good idea to ensure that the replicas on various domain controllers match. The simplest way to do this is by using the DSASTAT utility that comes in the Support Tools. Open a command console and run dsastat -loglevel:info. Depending on the speed of the links to the replication partners, the utility might take five to fifteen minutes to finish a run. At the end, you'll get a list of every object on the replicas and their sizes so you can compare object count and size.

    Loss of a WAN Link

    If a WAN link goes down, the bridgeheads on either side will realize that they cannot pull replication from their partner. If an alternate (but higher cost) connection exists to another site, the Directory Replication Agent (DRA) on the bridgeheads will use this connection automatically. The DRA also informs the ISTG, which tries to create new connections to other bridgeheads.

    You should not need to intervene in the operation of the DRA and ISTG. If they are unable to come up with a suitable replication path due to the way your sites are configured and connected, you may have to live with disabled replication until you can re-establish communications.

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