• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Controlling Replication Parameters

    The default replication intervals set by the NTDS Site Settings object support most operations. This topic covers ways to adjust the default replication intervals if you want to tune your system. It also shows how to force replication if you want to hurry the process along.

    Setting Replication Intervals

    Within a site, domain controllers send out replication announcements within five minutes after receiving an update. This does not apply to replication between sites. Replication between sites is controlled solely by fixed polling schedules.

    Changing Notification Parameters

    When a domain controller updates its copy of a naming context, it notifies its replication partners so they can pull a copy of the update. The default notification interval is five minutes. The domain controller sends a notification to one partner then waits 30 seconds before sending a notification to the next partner.

    The Registry values that control these notification intervals are stored in two values under HKLM | System || CurrentControlSet | NTDS | Parameters:

    • Replicator notify pause after modify (secs) - 300 secs

    • Replicator notify pause between DSAs (secs) - 30 secs

    If you want a shorter notification interval, you can reduce the Replicator Notify Pause After Modify interval, but keep an eye on utilization levels.

    In addition to update notifications, domain controllers replicate with their partners at fixed intervals. The purpose for this fixed schedule is to check for broken connections. The fixed replication interval is set by an attribute in the Connection object.

    Changing Inter-Site Polling Frequency and Schedule

    The default inter-site polling frequency is a 15-minute window every three hours. The interval is set by an attribute of the Site Link. You can change this interval using the AD Sites and Service console. See Figure 7.18 for an example. The minimum interval is 15 minutes.

    Figure 7.18. Site Link object properties showing replication interval.


    The default inter-site polling schedule is set to permit replication at any time. You can change the schedule to permit replication only during specific time periods. For example, you may want to delay replication until after working hours.

    The interval is set by another attribute of the Site Link. If you click Change Schedule, a Schedule window opens to show the replication schedule. It's possible to set up schedules that put a particular site in a replication "shadow." This occurs when the schedules for intervening connections have no overlap. If you have scheduling problems, you can override all schedules using the Ignore Schedules option in the Properties window of the IP or SMTP transport object.

    Forcing Replication

    If you want a particular update to replicate sooner than the default interval, you can force replication. One way to do this is by using the AD Sites and Services console as described in Procedure 7.10.

    Procedure 7.10 Forcing Replication with the AD Sites and Services Console

    1. Expand the tree to the server to which you want to replicate. Remember that connections represent inbound data flows.

    2. Find the NTDS Settings object and its associated Connection objects under the server icon.

    3. Right-click the connection from the replication partner and select REPLICATE NOW from the flyout menu. You get a message indicating that the replication commenced. If the link is broken, you get a message saying that the RPC connection is unavailable. If the connection is an inter-site connection, the replication request will be queued.

    You can check the Event log to verify that replication is complete. Alternatively, you can check the properties of a target object to verify that they changed. Replication does not occur immediately, so wait a few minutes before checking.

    If you prefer command-line tools, you can force replication using REPADMIN with this syntax:

    repadmin /syncall <DSA> <NC>

    <DSA> is the fully qualified domain name of the server to which you want to replicate. <NC> is the distinguished name of the naming context you want to replicate. For example:

    repadmin /syncall dc-01.company.com dc=company,dc=com

    Diagnosing RPC Problems

    Intra-site replication takes place over secure RPC connections. A failed RPC connection can result in Event log errors such as There are no more endpoints available from the RPC Endpoint Mapper.

    This is generally caused by network hardware failure, either a bad switch port or bad router table or a failed network adapter. It could also be caused by another RPC application that decided to interfere with the RPC Endpoint Mapper and the TCP ports it uses. The Microsoft RPC Runtime service selects TCP ports above 1024 at random to make its connections. If another process steps on one of those ports, you will get replication errors.

    Another possible cause of an RPC failure is a failure of the RPC Locator service. This service uses TCP port 135 to reach out to an RPC server. Sometimes a rogue application uses TCP port 135 and steps on the Locator service. More often, though, losing this port is the result of a zealous firewall administrator.

    If you think you are getting a failure of the RPC Locator service, try using the Rpcping utilities from the Resource Kit. These were originally designed for Exchange, but they are just as useful for Active Directory.

    There are two components to RPC tracing using Rpcping. At the server, you start the RPC Listener by running RpingS32. From the client, generate RPC traffic by running Rpings and specifying the fully qualified DNS name of the server. If you get a response, you know the RPC Locator service is working at the client end and the RPC Runtime is properly configured at the server.

    If Rpcping fails, check your network connections and configurations. Try restarting the server. You may have a problem with the network adapter driver, so always make sure you have the most current driver.

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