• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Designing Site Architectures

    Any design involves applying available features with adequate safeguards for failures. When laying out sites for your organization, keep the following guidelines in mind:

    • Minimize convergence time without swamping WAN links.

    • Localize client access to domain controllers for authentication and Active Directory services. This includes Global Catalog queries.

    • Prepare for possible failure of bridgehead servers.

    • Prepare for possible loss of WAN links.

    • Ensure that all naming contexts have a replication path through each site.

    The site plan depends on the network infrastructure. Begin with an evaluation of that infrastructure. Figure 7.8 shows a typical WAN layout for a medium-sized organization. The company has four offices scattered around the Southwest. They could just as easily be offices in the same city or overseas. The issue is not distance but the speed and reliability of the connections.

    Figure 7.8. WAN layout for offices in four cities.

    graphics/07fig08.gif

    Here are the key aspects of the infrastructure that affect site design:

    • Connections between offices use WAN links of various speeds. Some links, like the ISDN line, are expensive if used continually. This requires costing out the site links to ensure replication takes place over an appropriate path.

    • The network links, with the exception of the ISDN line, can handle respectable volumes of traffic. This makes it possible to use short inter-site polling frequencies.

    • The forest contains two domains. You must ensure that domain controllers from both domains can obtain updates from partners in the same domain. You must also ensure that Global Catalog servers can obtain updates from other GC servers.

    • All locations are well connected, so there is no need to use SMTP or to set special replication schedules.

    Figure 7.9 shows a provisional site plan for the infrastructure shown in Figure 7.8.

    Figure 7.9. Site plan showing replication connections corresponding to WAN layout in Figure 7.8.

    graphics/07fig09.gif

    In the example, each office is assigned a site. You might be tempted to put offices connected by high-speed links in the same site to minimize convergence time, but you have a secondary objective to localize client access. Using separate sites ensures that clients in each office authenticate on local domain controllers. Even if the offices were connected by DS-3 or SONET links, you would want to define separate sites in view of the objective to minimize the impact of a lost link.

    The IP Subnet objects use the IP addresses assigned to each office by the routing infrastructure. This permits domain controllers to guide a client to the correct site based on the client's IP address.

    The Site Link objects mimic the underlying network infrastructure only to the extent necessary to define the inter-office topology. There is no need to create Site Links for every routing path. Site links do not tell Active Directory how to route individual replication packets. They simply define the underlying connection lines. The primary concern is to tell the ISTG about available paths to the other sites so it can create appropriate Connection objects between the bridgeheads.

    The Site Link names include the names of the end-points so that you can tell at a glance where the link goes. This works like rural highway names in the Midwest. For example, in Cincinnati, the Carmel-Tabasco road connects the town of Carmel to the town of Tabasco.

    You can also include the connection type in the name to differentiate multiple links between the same sites. For example, the primary connection between the Houston office and the Albuquerque office is a frame relay PVC with a Committed Information Rate (CIR) of 512Kbps, so the name would be Hou_Alb_512.

    The link costs reflect the speed of the underlying WAN links. The costs tell the bridgeheads where to pull replication. In the example, the bridgehead in Albuquerque would replicate from the Phoenix bridgehead through the bridgehead in Houston. It uses this path rather than pulling directly from Phoenix using the ISDN line because the cost on the Site Link to Houston is lower than that of Phoenix. In the example, costs are assigned as follows:

    • The fastest connection is given a cost of 5. This gives some headroom for the future if a faster link is installed.

    • The remaining links costs are in ratio to the fastest link. For instance, the 512Kbps links are 1/3 of a full T-1, so the costs are 3*5 or 15. The cost of the ISDN link is 60 (1/12 of a full T-1, or 12*5).

    The polling frequency assigned to each fast link is set to 15 minutes. This is the minimum replication interval and yields the fastest convergence. The polling frequency for the ISDN line is set to 30 minutes to reduce the load on the slow link.

    The plan designates preferred bridgehead servers. This is not a required step. The KCC will select bridgeheads automatically. Designating a set of preferred bridgeheads is desirable when you want to ensure that the job is given to the most capable machines. It is important that you clearly label your preferred bridgeheads so that the operations staff does not inadvertently take them out of service and stop replication from a site.

    Site Link Bridge

    The KCC in each site assumes that it can obtain a naming context from a remote site by way of an intervening site. This transitive site replication is called bridging. The IP Transport has a property called Bridge All Site Links that puts all site links into one big bridge. This leaves the bridgehead free to pull replication from the least cost connection regardless of the costs of the upstream connections.

    If you have a large network with many different routes and several domains, certain route combinations might be preferable. In that case, you can disable the Bridge All Site Links option and define specific Site Link Bridges. This is only required if you experience severe replication delays caused by inappropriate routes selected by the bridgeheads.

    Finally, the plan has to designate the location of domain controllers and Global Catalog servers. Here is a set of guidelines:

    • Small offices with a few users are not given a local domain controller. The office is still defined as a site so that clients authenticate to the domain controllers in the closest office.

    • Slightly larger sites are given a local domain controller that is not configured as a Global Catalog server. The domain controller is configured to cache Global Catalog information so that a cut WAN link does not prevent users from authenticating.

    • Large sites are given both a DC and a GC. This ensures that sufficient domain controllers are available for handling peak authentication requests. It also maintains link continuity between sites containing different domains. In practice, you could make each domain controller a GC if you have fast, reliable servers.

    You should configure the sites in Active Directory before deploying controllers in the various sites. This permits the system to place the domain controllers in the correct site as they are promoted. Otherwise, you must move the server to the correct site manually.

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