• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    X.500 Overview

    A directory service is a distributed store of information about the users of a computer system and the infrastructure that supports that system.

    The goal of X.500 was to cut through the babble of competing information repositories to define a single place where users from all nations could go to locate each other, learn about each other, discover common likes and dislikes, and eventually communicate freely to find a path to universal peace and brotherhood and the dawning of the Age of Aquarius. The key features of an X.500 directory service are as follows:

    • The information is distributed among many different servers.

    • Users can submit queries to any server to find information anywhere in the system.

    • Servers can find information on other servers because they share common knowledge about each other.

    X.500 Components

    The magic of X.500 comes from the flexible way it compartmentalizes and distributes information. This flexibility comes at the cost of complexity, though—not the least of which is a thicket of nomenclature rife with obscure computing jargon and Three Letter Acronyms (TLAs). These X.500 acronyms crop up quite a bit in Active Directory documentation, so it pays to give them a Quick Run Through (QRT). Refer to Figure 6.2 for a roadmap. Here are the X/500 TLAs:

    • Information in an X.500 Directory is stored in a Directory Information Base (DIB).

    • The DIB is divided into pieces that are structured into a hierarchy called a Directory Information Tree (DIT).

    • Each piece of the DIB is stored on a server called a Directory Service Agent (DSA).

    • A user who needs information from Active Directory submits queries via an application interface called a Directory User Agent (DUA).

    • A DUA communicates with a DSA using the Directory Access Protocol (DAP).

    • One DSA communicates with another using the Directory System Protocol (DSP).

    • Administrative information exchanged between DSAs is controlled via policies defined by the Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol (DOP).

    • A single Directory Management Organization (DMO) takes charge of a Directory Management Domain (DMD) that contains one or more DSAs.

    • Information held by one DSA is replicated to other DSAs in the same DMD using the Directory Information Shadowing Protocol (DISP).

    Figure 6.2. X.500 components and their communication protocols.

    graphics/06fig02.gif

    DAP, DSP, DISP, and all other high-level communication protocols in X.500 use OSI networking as defined in ITU Recommendation X.200/OSI-EIU Standard 7498.

    X.500 Transaction Example

    Here's an example of how these X.500 components tie together (see Figure 6.3). Let's say that the secondhand car dealers in America get together and decide to form an association. They want a directory service to store information about vehicles available for sale at each member's showroom.

    Figure 6.3. Diagram of an example X.500 communication scheme.

    graphics/06fig03.gif

    The DIB for this dealership directory service includes makes, models, years, vehicle identification numbers, and unbeatable prices. Each dealer is assigned a DMO that controls a DMD. The DIB in each DMD is hosted by at least one DSA, which exchanges administrative information with DSAs in other DMDs using DOP. Dealerships in the same region have individual DSAs that replicate their copy of the DIB between each other via DISP. The pieces of the DIB are joined into a single DIT, the root of which is hosted by a DSA at headquarters.

    Why go through all this trouble? Well, if a customer at a dealership in Kankakee wants a cherry-colored Cherokee, the salesperson can sit at a DUA and submit a query to a local DSA via DAP. The DSA would check its copy of the local DIB and if it failed to locate a record, it would use DSP to query other DSAs until it either found a match or exhausted all possibilities. The DUA could then be programmed to suggest alternatives, like a cream-colored Chevelle in Chicago.

    The important point to remember about this transaction is that there is no central repository of information. Each local DSA holds its own copy of the DIB. Referral mechanisms are used to distribute queries around the system.

    Why LDAP Instead of X.500?

    Several pedigreed X.500 directory services are commercially available, but few have achieved widespread popularity. The problem with pristine X.500 implementations is the overhead represented by all those protocols. When you get an army of DUAs all talking DAP to DSAs that refer queries to other DSAs using DSP while at the same time mirroring their DIBs to other DSAs in their DMD via DISP, my friend, you've got a whole D* lot to go wrong.

    In the early 90s, a few bright folks at the University of Michigan wanted to build a directory service to handle their 100,000+ students, staff, and faculty. They gave up on the complexities of X.500 and came up with a scheme that retained the X.500 directory structure but gave it a streamlined access protocol based on standard TCP/IP instead of ISO. They also came up with a pared-down referral mechanism, a more flexible security model, and no fixed replication protocol. They called the result the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP. The rest, as they say, is history. The Blue and Maize folks no longer control LDAP development. The current repository of LDAP knowledge is at www.openldap.org.

    Active Directory and LDAP

    When Microsoft decided to replace the clumsy Registry-based account management system in classic NT with a true directory service, rather than devise a proprietary directory service of their own, they chose to adopt LDAP. Even more importantly, from our perspective as administrators, Microsoft chose to deliver their LDAP directory service using two proven technologies.

    Extensible Storage Engine (ESE)

    At its heart, a directory service database is made up of tables with rows representing objects of interest and columns representing attributes of those objects. What sets different databases apart is the way the tables are managed. This table manager is often called a database engine.

    The LDAP standards do not stipulate a particular table management technology. For the Active Directory table manager, Microsoft used a revved-up version of the Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) first introduced with Exchange. Microsoft chose ESE over the SQL Server database engine because a SQL engine does not work efficiently with the object-oriented structure of an LDAP directory. The ESE engine, on the other hand, was primarily designed as an object-oriented database.

    DNS-Based Locator System

    Users cannot take advantage of the information in a directory service if they cannot find the servers hosting the information. Microsoft chose to build its LDAP directory service around the Domain Name System (DNS). When an LDAP client needs to find a server hosting a directory service, it does so by querying DNS. This enabled Microsoft to use new features in DNS to simplify the search.

    For example, Microsoft took advantage of the relatively new service locator (SRV) record type to put pointers in DNS to indicate the names of servers hosting LDAP and Kerberos services. SRV records have a relatively complex structure, but Microsoft was able to avoid typographical errors by registering them automatically using Dynamic DNS.

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