• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Designing DNS Domains

    Now that you know the components of DNS and how they function, you're ready to design your own DNS system. Like all distributed network functions, your major goals are unbroken continuity of service, fast performance, minimum network traffic across the WAN, strong security, and a reasonably small need for administrative attention. We've already seen how primary and secondary DNS servers can be distributed to provide fault tolerance. This section covers these additional DNS features:

    • Zone replication

    • Using forwarders

    • Deploying into an existing DNS infrastructure

    • WINS forwarding

    • Dynamic zone updates

    • Automated database scavenging

    • Active Directory integration

    • Secure DNS Updates

    We'll take a look at each of these features from the viewpoint of fitting them into the design architecture. Then we'll see how to configure them using the DNS Management console.

    Zone Replication

    A secondary name server obtains a copy of a zone file either from the primary name server or another secondary via a mechanism called a zone transfer.

    Classic DNS zone transfers require the secondary server to poll its feeder server at regular intervals and copy the entire zone file if a change occurred. This method has a couple of weaknesses. First, polling mechanisms are an inefficient use of bandwidth. Second, copying an entire zone file takes an inordinate amount of bandwidth and CPU time.

    Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 incorporate two RFC-based provisions, update notification and incremental zone transfers, designed to improve classic DNS zone transfers. In addition, zone information can be stored in Active Directory, eliminating the need for specialized zone transfer mechanisms entirely.

    Update Notification

    In a standard zone transfer, the secondary name server polls its master periodically to see whether the zone has changed. The polling interval is set by a Refresh Interval in the Start of Authority (SOA) record. Figure 5.6 shows an example SOA record.

    Figure 5.6. Zone Properties window showing Start of Authority (SOA) tab. The Refresh interval determines the polling time between zone transfers.

    graphics/05fig06.gif

    When a secondary server reaches the end of its refresh interval, it asks its master for a copy of its SOA record. This record contains a serial number, which is a sequence number incremented each time the zone is updated. If the serial number in the SOA record held by the secondary is lower than the serial number in the SOA record polled from the master, the secondary initiates a zone transfer.

    Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 DNS implements the provisions of RFC 1996, "A Mechanism for Prompt Notification of Zone Changes." This RFC defines a new DNS opcode (operations code, one of the commands understood by DNS servers and clients) called DNS Notify. Procedure 5.4 shows how it works.

    Procedure 5.4 Functional Description of Standard Polled Zone Transfer

    1. When an update is made to the zone at the master name server, the server sends out a DNS Notify message to its secondary name servers. It must be configured with the IP addresses of these servers.

    2. The secondary name servers respond to the DNS Notify message by returning a standard update request for the SOA record.

    3. From this point forward, the zone transfer proceeds in a traditional fashion.

    Notification Differences from NT4

    NT4 DNS implemented the DNS Notify opcode, but the administrator was required to manually initiate the notification by selecting UPDATE SERVER DATA FILE from the zone's PROPERTY menu. This was required because NT4 DNS used standard zone transfers, which copied the entire zone file.

    Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 support incremental zone transfers, so notification is done automatically and the updates are copied as quickly as the secondaries can pull them down.

    Incremental Zone Transfers

    A standard DNS zone transfer involves copying the entire zone file from the primary name server to its secondaries and from secondary to secondary in a tiered structure. Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 avoid this sometimes lengthy file transfer by implementing the provisions of RFC 1995, "Incremental Zone Transfer in DNS."

    In an incremental transfer, the secondary server supplies the serial number from its copy of the SOA record when it requests a zone transfer. The master server sends only those updates that have been made subsequent to that serial number.

    If a Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000 name server is a secondary to a master that does not support incremental transfers, it falls back to using full zone transfers.

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