• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Examining Zones with Nslookup

    When you run into problems with DNS, the Nslookup utility is the tool of choice for tracking down problems. Nslookup enables you to perform selective zone transfers so that you can examine resource records in the zone. You can also use Nslookup to verify that a DNS server exists, find out what zone it manages, verify that the DNS server has a particular resource record, and browse the resource records as if you were browsing a directory.

    Nslookup has two modes: Interactive and Non-Interactive. If you run Nslookup and specify parameters on the command line, you run the utility in Non-Interactive mode. To see the IP address for www.guam.net and the name servers that are authoritative for the zone that holds the A record, for example, issue the Nslookup command followed by the name of the server as follows:

    C:\>nslookup www.guam.net c.root-servers.net.
    4.33.192.in-addr.arpa   nameserver = NS.PSI.NET
    NS.PSI.NET      internet address = 192.33.4.10
    Name:    www.guam.net
    Served by:
    - NS.GUAM.net
              198.81.233.2
              GUAM.net
    

    To use the Interactive mode, just enter Nslookup with no parameters.

    When you enter Interactive mode, you get a listing of the default name server followed by a command prompt, >:

    U:\>nslookup
    Default Server:  dns1.primenet.net
    Address:  206.165.5.10
    >
    

    From the command prompt, enter a question mark (?) to see the list of Nslookup commands.

    If you want to see the default settings for Nslookup, use set all. (You cannot just type set like a DOS command. This makes Nslookup think that you are querying for a server named set.) For example,

    > set all
    Default Server:  dns1.primenet.net
    Address:  206.165.5.10
    Set options:
      nodebug       defname       search        recurse
      nod2          novc          noignoretc    port=53
      querytype=A   class=IN      timeout=2     retry=3
      root=a.root-servers.net.        domain=company.com
      srchlist=company.com
    

    The following sections cover the most common Nslookup interactive commands and Set parameters.

    server

    Use this command to change the name of the DNS server that fields the Nslookup queries. Be sure to use FQDNs with a trailing dot. For example, if your default name server is dns1.company.com but you want to troubleshoot another DNS server, dns02.company.com, you would enter the following:

    > server dns02.company.com.
    Default server: dns02.company.com
    Address: 10.5.1.10
    

    lserver

    The lserver command works like server, but always uses the default name server. This enables you to escape from a dead end when you use the server command to get onto a name server that is not authoritative and cannot resolve another server name. If you use server to change to a name server that has no zone file, you won't be able to use the server command to go to another server because it cannot resolve the new host name. The lserver command gets you back to your home DNS server by using the original server to resolve the name.

    root

    This command works like the server command to change the default DNS server, but it selects the name from the top of the server list in the CACHE.DNS file. This is usually a public TLD root server. If the server is a private root server, the file would contain one or more internal name servers.

    ls

    This command lists the resource records in a particular zone. In essence, ls does a zone transfer of the selected record type. You can limit the scope of the transfer by specifying a record type using the Цt switch. Here is an example showing the host records (A records) in the company.com zone:

    > ls -t a company.com.
    [dc01.company.com]
     company.com.                   A      10.1.1.1
     gc._msdcs.company.com.         A      10.1.1.1
     dns01.branch1.company.com.     A      10.3.1.1
     dc01.company.com.              A      10.1.1.1
     nt30.company.com.              A      10.1.1.201
    

    If you specify any as the record type, or use the Цd switch with ls, Nslookup returns the entire zone file. Use caution: This can be quite an extensive list on some name servers. Use the indirection pipe (>) to save the output of ls to a file.

    You may be thinking that ls represents a security problem. You would be correct. Because ls works by performing a zone transfer, you can block it by controlling the servers that are allowed to pull a zone transfer. See "Enabling Zone Transfers and Update Notifications" earlier in this chapter for details.

    set [no]debug

    When debug is set, the report from an interactive command includes debugging information. This debugging information shows the results of a query including intermediate name servers included in the search. The following example is the result of a recursive query for roswellnm.org:

    > set debug
    > roswellnm.org.
    Server:  proxy7.az.farlap.com
    Address:  24.1.208.35
    
    ------------
    Got answer:
        HEADER:
            opcode = QUERY, id = 2, rcode = NOERROR
            header flags:  response, auth. answer, want recursion, recursion avail.
            questions = 1,  answers = 1,  authority records = 3,  additional = 3
    
        QUESTIONS:
            roswellnm.org, type = A, class = IN
        ANSWERS:
        ->  roswellnm.org
            internet address = 209.35.62.148
            ttl = 900 (15 mins)
        AUTHORITY RECORDS:
        ->  roswellnm.org
            nameserver = dns1.interland.net
            ttl = 0 (0 secs)
        ADDITIONAL RECORDS:
        ->  dns1.interland.net
            internet address = 64.224.20.132
            ttl = 900 (15 mins)
    ------------
    Name:    roswellnm.org
    Address:  209.35.62.148
    

    The debug option is especially useful for locating improper referrals caused by incorrect delegations.

    Set [no]d2

    Set this parameter if you aren't satisfied knowing the results of the query and you also need to know the exact format of the query itself. Here is the additional d2 information from a roswellnm.org lookup:

    > set d2
    > roswellnm.org.
    ;truncated to show differences from standard debug listing
    ------------
    SendRequest(), len 32
        HEADER:
            opcode = QUERY, id = 10, rcode = NOERROR
            header flags:  query, want recursion
            questions = 1,  answers = 0,  authority records = 0,  additional = 0
    
        QUESTIONS:
            Roswellnm.org, type = A, class = IN
    

    set [no]defname

    You may have noticed a trailing period at the end of each server name in the example lookups. The trailing dot tells Nslookup that the name is fully qualified. If you do not include the period, Nslookup appends the default domain name for the client. If you have a hard time remembering to include the trailing period, you can use set nodefname to tell Nslookup not to append the domain name.

    set [no]recurse

    If you want Nslookup queries to emulate a DNS server rather than a DNS client, queries should be configured as iterative and not recursive. Use this switch to change the query type as needed.

    set querytype

    You can limit or change the scope of a query by setting a certain record type. If you want to query for the MX records on a name server, for example, give the following command:

    > set type=mx
    > roswellnm.org.
    Server:  proxy7.az.farlap.com
    Address:  24.1.208.35
    
    Non-authoritative answer:
    roswellnm.org   MX preference = 5, mail exchanger = mail.roswellnm.org
    
    roswellnm.org   nameserver = DNS1.INTERLAND.NET
    mail.roswellnm.org      internet address = 209.35.103.30
    DNS1.INTERLAND.NET      internet address = 64.224.20.132
    
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