• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts

    In the early days of NetBIOS, Microsoft borrowed an idea from UNIX for resolving host names using a static lookup file. UNIX hosts were resolved using a Hosts file, and because the Microsoft team was working on OS/2 LAN Manager at the time, the NetBIOS name lookup table was called Lmhosts. Neither filename has an extension.

    TCP/IP-Related File Locations

    The \Windows\System32\Drivers\etc folder holds a sample Lmhosts file called Lmhosts.sam. You can either rename this file to Lmhosts and modify the contents or you can create a new file called Lmhosts.

    The directory holding Lmhosts is defined by the following Registry entry:

    Key:

    HKLM | SYSTEM | CurrentControlSet | Services | Tcpip | Parameters

    Value:

    DataBasePath

    The \Windows\System32\Drivers\etc directory holds these other TCP/IP-related files:

    • Hosts. Used to provide TCP/IP host name lookups.

    • Services. Contains well-known TCP and UDP ports and their uses.

    • Protocol. Contains the list of IP protocols used on the computer in accordance with RFC 1060.

    • Networks. Contains a quick lookup of network names and their corresponding gateway IP addresses.

    • Quotes. Supports the ever-popular Quote of the Day protocol. The default entries lean rather heavily on George Bernard Shaw and Charles Dickens, but you're free to add more.

    Configuring Lmhosts

    The idea behind Lmhosts is to have a place where Netbt.sys can resolve a name without broadcasting. The file is a plain ASCII text file consisting of IP addresses and host names. Here is an example listing three servers, two of which are domain controllers in a domain called COMPANY:

    # Lmhosts file for Domain COMPANY
    10.1.1.10        DC01             #PRE    #DOM:COMPANY
    10.1.1.20        DC02             #PRE    #DOM:COMPANY
    10.1.1.30        PRO3             #PRE
    10.1.1.100       PRO4             #PRE
    
    #BEGIN_ALTERNATE
    #INCLUDE        \\PRO3\PUBLIC\ETC\Lmhosts
    #INCLUDE        \\DC02\PUBLIC\ETC\Lmhosts
    #END_ALTERNATE
    

    The pound sign (#) has two functions:

    • Precedes a standard Lmhosts parameter such as #PRE, #DOM, and #INCLUDE

    • If not followed by a recognized parameter, indicates a remark, such as that used in the first line

    Here are the standard Lmhosts parameters. The name must be uppercase, otherwise the entry is considered a remark:

    • #PRE. This parameter tells the system to load the associated entry into the NetBIOS name cache at boot time. This speeds up initial name lookups.

    • #DOM. This parameter flags the entry as a domain controller with the name after the colon being the domain name. If you use Lmhosts in a domain environment, this switch is a necessity because it tells the local client where to go to get authenticated.

    • #INCLUDE. Tells Tcpip.sys to load the Lmhosts file from another computer. The #INCLUDE option enables you to maintain a single, central Lmhosts file that can be referenced by other workstations in a workgroup. The entry uses a UNC name, such as \\SRV1\Public, where Public is a share name. There is a subtle Catch-22 at work here. The UNC path contains a NetBIOS name, so you must make sure the local Lmhosts file has an entry for that name.

    • #BEGIN_ALTERNATE and #END_ALTERNATE. Use these statements to bracket multiple entries under a single #INCLUDE statement. If you have only one #INCLUDE statement, you do not need bracketing statements.

    Using Lmhosts

    Lmhosts should be used only as a last resort. Those little static mappings become ticking bombs that follow you around like the crocodile that chased Captain Hook in Peter Pan. One day, you'll forget they're out there and snap.

    That being said, there are some common uses for Lmhosts. For instance, some administrators use Lmhosts to resolve names over dial-up connections. There is an option to use WINS over dial-up, but very often it is ineffective or takes too long to work. A quick-and-dirty Lmhosts entry at the dial-up client can contain entries for domain controllers and servers associated with persistent client mappings.

    Rather than using Lmhosts to resolve a name in a mapped drive, however, you may want to consider just entering the IP address of the server in the UNC path. For instance, instead of mapping to \\Srv1\Users\LLuthor and using an Lmhosts entry to resolve \\Srv1 to 10.1.1.43, you could enter a UNC name of \\10.1.1.43\Users\ LLuthor. If you change a server's IP address, users must remap, but this is often easier than talking them through reconfiguring an Lmhosts file.

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