• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Network Diagnostic Utilities

    Before examining network name resolution in detail, we need to take a look at a few network diagnostic utilities in Windows Server 2003 and the Resource Kit. (They are also available in Windows 2000.) These tools are useful for displaying the contents of the many name caches and to modify their contents. They are IPCONFIG, NETSTAT, TRACERT, PATHPING, NBTSTAT, and NETDIAG.

    IPCONFIG

    The IP parameters for an interface are set and configured using the Network and Dial-up Connection window. You can view these settings from the command line using IPCONFIG. Run ipconfig /all to display detailed information for each interface.

    Here is an example:

    Ethernet adapter :
        Host Name: . . . . . . . . . . . .  : PRO1.company.com
            Description . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR FA310TX Fast Ethernet Adapter (NGRPCI).
            Physical Address. . . . . . . . : 08-00-09-AA-AA-AA
            DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . : Yes
            IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 10.1.60.1
            Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
            Default Gateway . . . . . . . . : 10.1.254.254
            Primary WINS Server . . . . . . : 10.1.100.254
            Secondary WINS Server . . . . . : 10.1.100.253
            Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . : Saturday, December 16, 2001 3:35:06 AM
            Lease Expires . . . . . . . .   : Sunday, December 24, 2001 3:35:06 AM
    

    Here are the switches associated with IPCONFIG and their functions:

    • Ipconfig /release. If an adapter is configured for DHCP, this option releases the currently leased address. Use this switch to force the client to give up an address that you want to assign to another client.

    • Ipconfig /renew. If the adapter is configured for DHCP, this option sends a renewal request to the DHCP server that initially leased the address. Under most circumstances, the client will obtain the address that it had previously leased. Use this option to download a new DHCP configuration packet.

    • Ipconfig /displaydns. This option shows the records in the local DNS cache.

    • Ipconfig /flushdns. This option clears the local DNS cache.

    • Ipconfig /registerdns. This option registers the client with Dynamic DNS.

    • Ipconfig /showclassid. This option lists the allowable DHCP class IDs for the adapter.

    • Ipconfig /setclassid. This option modifies the DHCP class ID.

    Netstat

    This utility displays data collected from interfaces configured for TCP/IP. Here are the switches and what they display:

    • Netstat -a. Displays the various TCP and UDP sessions established on an interface. Use this switch when you want a quick check for potential teardrop attacks or other possible problems that could cause a server to accumulate excessive TCP listens and sessions:

      TCP    DC01:3269         DC01.subsidiary.com:0     LISTENING
      TCP    DC01:6548         DC01.subsidiary.com:0     LISTENING
      TCP    DC01:nbsession    DC01.subsidiary.com:0     LISTENING
      TCP    DC01:389          DC01.subsidiary.com:1065  ESTABLISHED
      TCP    DC01:389          DC01.subsidiary.com:1095  ESTABLISHED
      TCP    DC01:389          DC01.subsidiary.com: 1103 ESTABLISHED
      

      Graphical IP Configuration

      You may prefer a graphical representation of an interface's IP configuration, such as that used by Winipcfg in Windows 9x. You can get such a display by right-clicking the connection icon in the system tray and selecting STATUS from the flyout menu. This opens the Status window for the connection. Then select the Support tab to show the IP configuration information. Figure 4.4 shows an example. You can renew and release DHCP addresses using this window.

      Figure 4.4. Local Area Connection Status window showing IP connection information.

      graphics/04fig04.gif

      If you do not see a connection icon in the system tray, enable the Show Icon In Taskbar Notification Area When Connected option in the properties for the connection.

    • Netstat Цe. Displays Ethernet statistics including problem packets:

      Interface Statistics
                                     Received       Sent
      Bytes                           870327        9569847
      Unicast packets                 6729          10074
      Non-unicast packets             2345          725
      Discards                         0            0
      Errors                           0            2
      Unknown protocols                0
      
    • Netstat Цn. Displays local addresses and port numbers for the various sessions and listens:

      Active Connections
        Proto  Local Address          Foreign Address        State
        TCP    10.1.100.1:445         10.1.1.1:1160          ESTABLISHED
        TCP    10.1.100.1:445         10.2.1.1:1313          ESTABLISHED
        TCP    10.1.100.1:445         10.3.1.2:1047          ESTABLISHED
        TCP    10.1.100.1:2261        10.1.1.254:3389        ESTABLISHED
      
    • Netstat Цp [tcp] [udp] [ip]. Similar to -n, but lists by host name. The list includes protocol represented by p. The example is for Netstat -p tcp (The microsoft-ds entry corresponds to TCP port 445):

      Proto  Local Address               Foreign Address        State
      TCP    srv1:microsoft-ds           DC01:1160              ESTABLISHED
      TCP    srv1:microsoft-ds           DC02:1313              ESTABLISHED
      TCP    srv1:microsoft-ds           DC03:1047              ESTABLISHED
      TCP    srv1:2261                   NT401:3389             ESTABLISHED
      
    • Netstat Цr. Displays the contents of the local routing table. The listing also includes the active ports:

      =======================================================================
      Interface List
      0x1 ................. Internal loopback interface for 127.0.0.0 network
      0x2 ................. Internal RAS Server interface for dial in clients
      0x3 ...08 00 09 aa aa aa ...... NETGEAR FA310TX Adapter (NGRPCI)
      =======================================================================
      =======================================================================
      Active Routes:
      Network Destination        Netmask              Gateway      Interface   Metric
      10.1.0.0                   255.255.0.0          10.1.30.1    10.1.30.1    1
      10.1.30.1                  255.255.255.255      127.0.0.1    127.0.0.1    1
      10.255.255.255             255.255.255.255      10.1.30.1    10.1.30.1    1
      127.0.0.0                  255.0.0.0            127.0.0.1    127.0.0.1    1
      127.0.0.1                  255.255.255.255      127.0.0.1    127.0.0.1    1
      224.0.0.0                  224.0.0.0            10.1.30.1    10.1.30.1    1
      255.255.255.255            255.255.255.255      10.1.30.1    10.1.30.1    1
      ===============================================================================
      
    • Netstat Цs. Displays statistics for each protocol. Use the Цp switch to select a particular protocol:

      TCP Statistics
        Active Opens                    = 1103
        Passive Opens                   = 1204
        Failed Connection Attempts      = 1
        Reset Connections               = 34
        Current Connections             = 22
        Segments Received               = 23942
        Segments Sent                   = 27209
        Segments Retransmitted          = 134
      

    Tracert

    This utility is similar to the UNIX traceroute. It reports the IP address and name of each interface between the client and the target. If Ping fails, Tracert can tell you where the responses have stopped.

    Tracert works by sending out a series of ICMP Echo Requests to the destination host, similar to Ping, except that Tracert controls the Time-To-Live (TTL) value in the ICMP packet to get a response from each intervening router.

    Tracert sends the first ICMP Echo Request with a TTL of 1, so the first router responds but the second times out with a TTL Exceeded in Transit error. The next ICMP has a TTL of 2, then 3, and so forth until the ultimate host finally responds. Each request is repeated three times and the output is presented as a series of router names and IP addresses. By default, Tracert does a reverse DNS query to get the name associated with each IP address. Here is a sample Tracert report:

    C:\Documents and Settings\Admin>tracert www.google.com
    Tracing route to www.google.com [216.239.35.100]
    over a maximum of 30 hops:
      1     1 ms     1 ms    <1 ms  192.168.0.254
      2    13 ms    12 ms    12 ms  12.48.12.1
      3    16 ms    58 ms    77 ms  12.0.121.81
      4    21 ms    29 ms    15 ms  c1-pos4-1.phnxaz1.home.net [24.7.76.173]
      5    21 ms    19 ms    19 ms  c1-pos2-0.sndgca1.home.net [24.7.65.134]
      6    25 ms    57 ms    23 ms  c1-pos1-0.anhmca1.home.net [24.7.64.69]
      7    23 ms    26 ms    25 ms  c1-pos1-0.lsanca1.home.net [24.7.65.169]
      8    30 ms    26 ms    25 ms  c1-pos2-0.snbbca1.home.net [24.7.65.174]
      9    31 ms    29 ms    30 ms  c2-pos3-0.snjsca1.home.net [24.7.64.49]
     10    30 ms    32 ms    32 ms  above-athome.sjc2.above.net [208.185.175.133]
     11    32 ms    36 ms    31 ms  core4-core3-oc48.sjc2.above.net [208.184.102.198]
     12    32 ms    64 ms    32 ms  core2-sjc2-oc48.sjc3.above.net [208.184.233.50]
     13    31 ms    31 ms    63 ms  main1colo56-core2-oc48.sjc3.above.net [208.185.175.198]
     14    31 ms    31 ms    32 ms  sjni1-gige-2-1.google.com [216.239.47.18]
     15    38 ms    75 ms    40 ms  192.168.254.86
     16    38 ms    30 ms    40 ms  www.google.com [216.239.35.100]
    Trace complete.
    

    Here are the Tracert switches:

    • Tracert Цd. Turns off host name lookups. This significantly speeds up traces. Highly recommended.

    • Tracert Цh. Increases the maximum hop count. The default is 30.

    • Tracert Цj host-list. This option is used to force Tracert to use a specific router via source routing.

    • Tracert Цw. Increases the maximum timeout.

    Pathping

    Tracert can take a long time to produce a listing because it waits for the Echo Response from the final host. You'll get a faster trace using Pathping. This utility sends out a series of ICMP Echo Requests with incremented TTLs, just as Tracert does, but it displays the intermediate host address immediately then waits until the ultimate host is contacted before calculating statistics. The calculation takes a long time and you can abort it with Ctrl+C.

    Nbtstat

    When a Windows TCP/IP client resolves a NetBIOS name, it caches the results in a NetBIOS Name Cache table. By default, the entry stays in the cache for 600 seconds (10 minutes). You can view and manipulate the contents of the NetBIOS Name Cache using Nbtstat. Here are the Nbtstat switches and their functions. The switches are case sensitive:

    • Nbtstat -c. Displays the contents of the local name cache. Use this switch when you want to verify that a computer has cached the correct IP address for a target host.

      The following code listing shows a sample name cache. The Type column is the 2-byte hex ID of the NetBIOS service. The first three entries were preloaded from a local Lmhosts file, which gives them a life of 60 seconds rather than the default 600 seconds:

      Node IpAddress: [10.1.1.10] Scope Id: []
                    NetBIOS Remote Cache Name Table
      Name                  Type            Host Address    Life [sec]
      ------------------------------------------------------------
      DC02                <03>  UNIQUE      10.1.1.20         60
      DC02                <00>  UNIQUE      10.1.1.20         60
      DC02                <20>  UNIQUE      10.1.1.20         60
      NTS01               <00>  UNIQUE      10.1.1.101        600
      
    • Nbtstat - a. Displays the name cache on a remote computer given its NetBIOS name. This option also displays the MAC address of the remote network adapter. Example syntax: Nbtstat -a dc01.

    • Nbtstat -A. Displays the name cache on a remote machine given its IP address. Also displays the MAC address of the remote network adapter. Example syntax: Nbtstat -A 10.1.1.1.

    • Nbtstat -n. Displays the NetBIOS names associated with the local computer. This includes the computer name with all services, the locally logged-on user with all services, the workgroup or domain of the computer, and any browser services running:

      Node IpAddress: [10.1.10.3] Scope Id: []
                  NetBIOS Local Name Table
      Name                        Type         Status
      --------------------------------------------------
      PRO1                <00>    UNIQUE      Registered
      PRO1                <03>    UNIQUE      Registered
      PRO1                <20>    UNIQUE      Registered
      COMPANY             <00>    GROUP       Registered
      COMPANY             <1E>    GROUP       Registered
      ..__MSBROWSE__.     <01>    GROUP       Registered
      
    • Nbtstat -r. Lists the names in the name cache and how they were resolved. This is handy when you are trying to determine whether a computer used broadcasts or WINS to get an IP address:

          NetBIOS Names Resolution and Registration Statistics
          ----------------------------------------------------
      
          Resolved By Broadcast     = 2
          Resolved By Name Server   = 5
          Registered By Broadcast   = 32
          Registered By Name Server = 8
      
          NetBIOS Names Resolved By Broadcast
      ---------------------------------------------
                 DC01       <00>
                  DC01       <00>
      
    • Nbtstat -R. Purges the name cache and loads the preload (#PRE) items out of the Lmhosts file. See "Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts" later in the chapter.

    • Nbtstat -S. Displays the current sessions on the local machine showing the IP addresses of the connected machines. This is very useful when you want a quick display of the services that have active connections:

      NetBIOS Connection Table
      Local Name             State    In/Out  Remote Host       Input   Output
      ------------------------------------------------------------------------
      PRO1            <03>   Listening
      PRO1                   Connected   In    10.1.100.3         2KB      3KB
      ADMINISTRATOR    <03>   Listening
      
    • Nbtstat -s. Same as -S, but with the name of the connected machine rather than the IP address:

      NetBIOS Connection Table
      Local Name             State    In/Out  Remote Host       Input   Output
      ------------------------------------------------------------------------
      PRO1           <03>    Listening
      PRO1                   Connected   In      SRV1           2KB      3KB
      ADMINISTRATOR   <03>    Listening
      
    • Nbtstat -RR. Releases the name registration in WINS and then reregisters. Introduced in NT4 SP4, this switch is extremely useful for correcting WINS errors. A bad record can be deleted manually from WINS, and then the client can be reregistered with this option.

    If you discover during all this pinging and tracing and name cache scanning that everyone else in the area is working fine and only this machine is having problems, try opening the Network Connections window and checking the status of the connection icon. If it has a big X on it, the interface has lost communication with the network. Check the Event log to see whether there is some reason for the failure.

    Registry Tip: Location of NetBIOS Cache Control Keys

    The Registry key that contains the configuration parameters such as cache timeouts and broadcast counts is located in HKLM | System | CurrentControlSet | Services | NETBT.

    Netdiag

    This utility does a comprehensive set of tests on just about every network function. The report is too long to read inside a console or to reproduce here. Pipe the output to a file for review.

    If you have a network problem that goes beyond a simple connectivity glitch, Netdiag is the first place to turn. It will either point right to the source of the trouble or give you a good set of clues to start troubleshooting. It may take a while to sort through the report, but the root cause should be buried in there somewhere.

    Netsh

    The Network Shell utility is the primary unified command-line management tool for all network interfaces and basic TCP/IP services with the exception of DNS. A new parameter in Windows Server 2003, called Diag, gives lots of good information about the state of each interface. The syntax for a full test is netsh> diag show test.

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