• Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • software development Company Server 2003
  • Chapter 1. Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2003
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Best Practices
  • Moving Forward
  • Version Comparisons
  • Hardware Recommendations
  • Installation Checklist
  • Functional Overview of Windows Server 2003 Setup
  • Installing Windows Server 2003
  • Post Setup Configurations
  • Functional Description of the Windows Server 2003 Boot Process
  • Correcting Common Setup Problems
  • Chapter 2. Performing Upgrades and Automated Installations
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • NT4 Upgrade Functional Overview
  • Upgrading an NT4 or Windows 2000 Server
  • Automating Windows Server 2003 Deployments
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 3. Adding Hardware
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Architecture
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Plug and Play
  • Installing and Configuring Devices
  • Troubleshooting New Devices
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 4. Managing NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 Networking
  • Name Resolution and Network Services
  • Network Diagnostic Utilities
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Broadcasts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using Lmhosts
  • Resolving NetBIOS Names Using WINS
  • Managing WINS
  • Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution
  • Chapter 5. Managing DNS
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Caching-Only Server
  • Configuring a DNS Server to Use a Forwarder
  • Managing Dynamic DNS
  • Configuring Advanced DNS Server Parameters
  • Examining Zones with Nslookup
  • Command-Line Management of DNS
  • Configuring DHCP to Support DNS
  • Moving Forward
  • Overview of DNS Domain Structure
  • Functional Description of DNS Query Handling
  • Designing DNS Domains
  • Active Directory Integration
  • Configuring DNS Clients
  • Installing and Configuring DNS Servers
  • Configuring Secondary DNS Servers
  • Integrating DNS Zones into Active Directory
  • Chapter 6. Understanding Active Directory Services
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Active Directory Support Files
  • Active Directory Utilities
  • Bulk Imports and Exports
  • Moving Forward
  • Limitations of Classic NT Security
  • Directory Service Components
  • Brief History of Directory Services
  • X.500 Overview
  • LDAP Information Model
  • LDAP Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Namespace Structure
  • Active Directory Schema
  • Chapter 7. Managing Active Directory Replication
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Replication Overview
  • Detailed Replication Transaction Descriptions
  • Designing Site Architectures
  • Configuring Inter-site Replication
  • Controlling Replication Parameters
  • Special Replication Operations
  • Troubleshooting Replication Problems
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 8. Designing Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Design Objectives
  • DNS and Active Directory Namespaces
  • Domain Design Strategies
  • Strategies for OU Design
  • Flexible Single Master Operations
  • Domain Controller Placement
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 9. Deploying Windows Server 2003 Domains
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Preparing for an NT Domain Upgrade
  • In-Place Upgrade of an NT4 Domain
  • In-Place Upgrade of a Windows 2000 Forest
  • Migrating from NT and Windows 2000 Domains to Windows Server 2003
  • Additional Domain Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 10. Active Directory Maintenance
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Loss of a DNS Server
  • Loss of a Domain Controller
  • Loss of Key Replication Components
  • Backing Up the Directory
  • Performing Directory Maintenance
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 11. Understanding Network Access Security and Kerberos
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server 2003 Security Architecture
  • Security Components
  • Password Security
  • Authentication
  • Analysis of Kerberos Transactions
  • MITv5 Kerberos Interoperability
  • Security Auditing
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 12. Managing Group Policies
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Group Policy Operational Overview
  • Managing Individual Group Policy Types
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 13. Managing Active Directory Security
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Active Directory Security
  • Using Groups to Manage Active Directory Objects
  • Service Accounts
  • Using the Secondary Logon Service and RunAs
  • Using WMI for Active Directory Event Notification
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 14. Configuring Data Storage
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Server 2003 Data Storage
  • Performing Disk Operations on IA32 Systems
  • Recovering Failed Fault Tolerant Disks
  • Working with GPT Disks
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 15. Managing File Systems
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Overview of Windows Server 2003 File Systems
  • NTFS Attributes
  • Link Tracking Service
  • Reparse Points
  • File System Recovery and Fault Tolerance
  • Quotas
  • File System Operations
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 16. Managing Shared Resources
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description of Windows Resource Sharing
  • Configuring File Sharing
  • Connecting to Shared Folders
  • Resource Sharing Using the Distributed File System (Dfs)
  • Printer Sharing
  • Configuring Windows Server 2003 Clients to Print
  • Managing Print Services
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 17. Managing File Encryption
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • File Encryption Functional Description
  • Certificate Management
  • Encrypted File Recovery
  • Encrypting Server-Based Files
  • EFS File Transactions and WebDAV
  • Special EFS Guidelines
  • EFS Procedures
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 18. Managing a Public Key Infrastructure
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Moving Forward
  • PKI Goals
  • Cryptographic Elements in Windows Server 2003
  • Public/Private Key Services
  • Certificates
  • Certification Authorities
  • Certificate Enrollment
  • Key Archival and Recovery
  • Command-Line PKI Tools
  • Chapter 19. Managing the User Operating Environment
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Side-by-Side Assemblies
  • User State Migration
  • Managing Folder Redirection
  • Creating and Managing Home Directories
  • Managing Offline Files
  • Managing Servers via Remote Desktop
  • Moving Forward
  • Chapter 20. Managing Remote Access and Internet Routing
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Configuring a Network Bridge
  • Configuring Virtual Private Network Connections
  • Configuring Internet Authentication Services (IAS)
  • Moving Forward
  • Functional Description of WAN Device Support
  • PPP Authentication
  • NT4 RAS Servers and Active Directory Domains
  • Deploying Smart Cards for Remote Access
  • Installing and Configuring Modems
  • Configuring a Remote Access Server
  • Configuring a Demand-Dial Router
  • Configuring an Internet Gateway Using NAT
  • Chapter 21. Recovering from System Failures
  • New Features in Windows Server 2003
  • Functional Description Ntbackup
  • Backup and Restore Operations
  • Recovering from Blue Screen Stops
  • Using Emergency Management Services (EMS)
  • Using Safe Mode
  • Restoring Functionality with the Last Known Good Configuration
  • Recovery Console
  • Moving Forward
  • Who Should Read This Book
  • Who This Book Is Not For
  • Conventions
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Technical Reviewers
  • Index
  • Index A
  • Index B
  • Index C
  • Index D
  • Index E
  • Index F
  • Index G
  • Index H
  • Index I
  • Index J
  • Index K
  • Index L
  • Index M
  • Index N
  • Index O
  • Index P
  • Index Q
  • Index R
  • Index S
  • Index SYMBOL
  • Index T
  • Index U
  • Index V
  • Index W
  • Index X
  • Index Z
  • Preface
  • Previous Section Next Section

    Name Resolution and Network Services

    Table 4.1 lists the addresses, ports, and names used at each layer of the OSI model as it is implemented in Windows Server 2003. Processes running at each layer communicate with their peer processes at other stations using these addresses, ports, and names.

    Let's now work our way down the OSI stack to see how each layer resolves the NetBIOS name into an address that can be used to communicate with its peer layer on another machine.

    Table 4.1. Addresses and Names Used at Each Windows Server 2003 Network Layer

    Layer

    Protocol

    Name or Address

    Application

    SMB

    NetBIOS name

    Transport

    TCP or UDP

    Port number

    Network

    IP

    IP address

    Data link

    NDIS

    MAC address

    Multihomed NetBIOS Registrations and Single Adapters

    The Multihomed NetBIOS name type is not assigned to name/service combinations originating from a computer with multiple IP addresses bound to the same adapter. Only the first IP address bound to the adapter is registered with WINS, but an SMB connection can be made to any IP address in the binding list. This contrasts to NT, where an SMB connection could only be made to the top address in the binding list.

    Application Layer and Server Message Block (SMB)

    Windows client redirectors and servers use the SMB protocol to communicate with each other. There are a variety of SMB dialects representing different maturity states of the protocol. One of the first actions in an SMB transaction is a negotiation between the parties to agree on a common dialect. Windows Server 2003 uses the NT LM 0.12 dialect.

    A few years ago, Microsoft rechristened SMB as the Common Internet File System (CIFS). The new name is purely market positioning. The CIFS/SMB dialect used by Windows Server 2003 is the same dialect used by all versions of NT since 3.51.

    In the absence of a locator mechanism such as WINS or DNS, SMB applications can use broadcasts to find each other. This works something like a CB radio. When the Workstation service on one station wants to communicate with the Server service on another station, for example, the Workstation service puts out a broadcast that essentially says, "Breaker on that Ethernet. This here's the Workstation service on PRO1 looking for that Server service on SVR13. Come on back, SRV13 Server service." When the Server service on SVR13 gets this message, it returns a response such as, "You got that SRV13 Server service, good buddy. Come on back." The two services agree on a dialect, assign a unique ID to the session, and begin communications.

    When a Windows computer that is a member of a domain establishes SMB communication with a domain controller, it also establishes a secure Remote Procedure Call (RPC) session. This RPC session uses SMB but is capable of encrypting the traffic used to carry sensitive information between a client and a server. This includes authentication information.

    The computer password is stored in the local Security Account Manager (SAM) of the client and in Active Directory. If a domain member cannot resolve the domain controller name into an IP address, it cannot build a secure RPC channel and users cannot get authenticated in the domain.

    Transport Layer

    SMB is a session-oriented protocol. Peer SMB applications running on two stations must establish a link with each other prior to exchanging SMB messages. For this reason, SMB traffic is always carried in TCP datagrams.

    SMB and System Integration

    SMB is the lingua franca for a variety of network operating systems, not just Windows Server 2003. It is used by all versions of Windows, from Windows for Workgroups through Windows 9x and classic NT. OS/2 Warp uses SMB because Warp and NT share a common ancestor in OS/2 LAN Manager. SMB is also used by Samba, a UNIX port of SMB. There are Samba implementations for NetWare and VMS, as well.

    Different SMB applications can talk to each other, although you might not get full functionality. It's like a conversation between a Portuguese merchant and an Italian tourist. The general ideas might get across just fine, but there may be problems with the details of the transaction. SMB applications on non-Windows platforms most commonly have problems with authentication.

    The well-known port for SMB traffic is TCP port 139. This port is used by the NetBIOS-over-TCP helper, Netbt.sys, which essentially "tunnels" SMB into TCP. Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 computers can use TCP directly to carry SMB commands. This "direct hosting" of SMB occurs over TCP port 445. Windows computers capable of direct SMB communication will always use TCP port 445 to exchange traffic with each other while falling back on classic TCP port 139 to exchange traffic with downlevel clients. See "Disabling NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP Name Resolution" at the end of this chapter for more information about the benefits of using direct hosting of SMB exclusively.

    Windows computers can also exchange sessionless traffic. Examples include name resolution/registration transactions and NetBIOS broadcasts. Because these messages do not require sessions and are generally quite small, they use UDP. Windows uses UDP port 137 for NetBIOS name resolution/registration and UDP port 138 for NetBIOS broadcasts and unidirectional traffic. For example, when you use the net send command to pop up a message on a user's console, the message goes out over UDP port 138.

    A TCP-based service places a "listen" on a TCP port then waits for connections to that port. You can get a list of the active TCP ports on a server using the NETSTAT utility with the syntax netstat -a. If a port is listed in the Services file located at C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc, the registered port name is used in place of the port number. You can get a full list of ports from www.iana.org.

    A new feature in the NETSTAT utility in Windows Server 2003 is the ability to list the process that owns each port. This helps identify rogue processes and acts as a troubleshooting aid. Here is a sample listing:

    C:\>netstat -ao
    
    Active Connections
    
      Proto  Local Address          Foreign Address        State           PID
      TCP    LAPTOP:http            LAPTOP.company.com:0   LISTENING       1420
      TCP    LAPTOP:epmap           LAPTOP.company.com:0   LISTENING       976
      TCP    LAPTOP:https           LAPTOP.company.com:0   LISTENING       1420
      TCP    LAPTOP:microsoft-ds    LAPTOP.company.com:0   LISTENING       4
    

    You can get a mapping of PIDs (process IDs) to service names using Task Manager or the new TASKLIST utility in Windows Server 2003. Here is a sample listing using the /svc switch to show the individual services under each process executable:

    svchost.exe                  976 RpcSs
    svchost.exe                 1000 AudioSrv, Browser, CryptSvc, Dhcp, dmserver,
                                     ERSvc, EventSystem, helpsvc, lanmanserver,
                                     lanmanworkstation, Messenger, Netman, Nla,
                                     RasMan, Schedule, seclogon, SENS,
                                     ShellHWDetection, srservice, TapiSrv,
                                     TermService, Themes, TrkWks, uploadmgr,
                                     W32Time, winmgmt, WmdmPmSp, wuauserv, WZCSVC
    svchost.exe                 1164 Dnscache
    svchost.exe                 1188 LmHosts, RemoteRegistry, SSDPSRV, WebClient
    spoolsv.exe                 1280 Spooler
    inetinfo.exe                1420 IISADMIN, W3SVC
    

    Another great utility for seeing TCP port usage is the FPORt tool from Foundstone (www.foundstone.com). Here is a sample listing:

    D:\>fport
    FPort v2.0 - TCP/IP Process to Port Mapper
    Copyright 2000 by Foundstone, Inc.
    http://www.foundstone.com
    
    Pid   Process            Port  Proto Path
    1420  inetinfo       ->  80    TCP   C:\WINDOWS\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
    976   svchost        ->  135   TCP   C:\WINDOWS\system32\svchost.exe
    4     System         ->  139   TCP
    1420  inetinfo       ->  443   TCP   C:\WINDOWS\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
    4     System         ->  445   TCP
    1000  svchost        ->  1025  TCP   C:\WINDOWS\System32\svchost.exe
    1420  inetinfo       ->  1027  TCP   C:\WINDOWS\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
    

    Network Layer

    The IP protocol takes UDP and TCP datagrams and packages them for delivery to the NDIS driver waiting at the MAC layer. IP can also carry so-called raw IP traffic from applications that bypass TCP and UDP.

    The Tcpip.sys driver is responsible for determining the IP address of the destination based on the NetBIOS name in the SMB message. Tcpip.sys can either use its own internal DNS resolver or it can rely on the NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP helper, Netbt.sys, to resolve the address using NetBIOS name resolution. In brief, Tcpip.sys has the following tools at its disposal:

    • Lmhosts. This file contains a set of entries consisting of IP addresses and their corresponding NetBIOS computer names.

    • Hosts. This file contains a set of entries consisting of IP addresses and their corresponding DNS host names.

    • Broadcasts. This method uses UDP datagrams sent as IP multicasts that request a response from the station having the destination name in the datagram. A response to this datagram contains the station's IP address.

    • WINS. This is a central database containing flat NetBIOS names, service IDs, and IP addresses.

      Restricting SMB Traffic Through Firewalls

      If you want to restrict SMB communications from outside the local network, configure your firewall or TCP/IP filter to block traffic over TCP port 139 and UDP ports 138 and 137. If you want to block SMB traffic from Windows Server 2003, XP, and Windows 2000, also block TCP port 445.

    • NetBIOS name cache. When a NetBIOS name is resolved, it is cached to speed up subsequent lookups.

    • DNS. This is a central database containing hierarchical host names and IP addresses.

    • DNS resolver cache. When a DNS name is resolved, it is cached to speed up subsequent lookups.

    A simple way to remember the order in which TCP/IP uses these tools is the phrase "Can We Buy Large Hard Drives?" The first letters are keys for cache, WINS, Broadcast, Lmhosts, Hosts, and DNS.

    Media Access Control Layer

    By the time the original SMB message arrives at the network adapter, it has been sliced and diced and nearly fully digested. Just one thing is lacking. The NDIS drivers at the MAC layer don't know diddly about NetBIOS names, TCP/UDP ports, or IP addresses. Down here in the basement of the OSI stack, only one thing counts, and that is the MAC address associated with the physical device. Tcpip.sys must provide a MAC address to the NDIS driver so NDIS can build a transmission frame. For this purpose, Tcpip.sys uses the Address Resolution Protocol, or ARP.

    ARP works by broadcasting the destination stations' IP address then waiting for a response. All network interfaces on the subnet hear the broadcast, but only the station with the matching IP address responds. The response contains the station's MAC address.

    Tcpip.sys plucks the MAC address out of the ARP response and gives it to NDIS. The NDIS drivers use the MAC address to build the header of the transmission frame. Tcpip.sys caches the IP address/MAC address pair so it doesn't need to do another ARP broadcast for a while. A cache entry times out after 10 minutes if it is used and after 2 minutes if it is not used.

    ARP broadcasts succeed even in routed environments. IP routers are programmed to act on ARP requests for IP addresses in their network range. The router responds by returning the MAC address of the router interface associated with the network number in the IP address. This fools the originating station into thinking that it is talking to the destination station. The router then repackages the packet and sends it either to the destination network (if it is in the routing table) or to its own gateway for further processing.

    Internet Control Management Protocol (ICMP)

    Another Network layer protocol implemented by Tcpip.sys is the Internet Control Management Protocol (ICMP).

    The most familiar use of ICMP is in diagnostic programs such as Ping and Tracert. When you ping a host, for example, the result is a series of ICMP Echo Request and ICMP Echo Reply transactions.

    ICMP is also used to communicate network connection problems between physical layer entities. For example, if an IP packet exceeds the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) value for a router interface, the router discards the packet and sends back an ICMP message with the correct MTU.

    You can view the MAC address returned from a host as part of an arp transaction in a couple of ways. One way is to first ping the host then display the contents of the arp cache using the arp utility with this syntax: arp -c. A better way is to use the new GETMAC utility in Windows Server 2003. Here is an example listing:

    D:\>getmac /s 192.168.0.1
    
    Physical Address    Transport Name
    =================== ==================================================
    00-02-3A-2A-3C-DC  \Device\Tcpip_{CDB02354-574F-4FEE-8CFF-AFBCE6CC1511}
    

    You can see the MAC address associated with the network adapters in your machine by opening a command prompt and entering ipconfig /all. This also shows the IP information associated with the interfaces. Here is an example:

    C:\>Ipconfig /all
    
    Windows Server 2003 IP Configuration
    
            Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : PRO1
            Primary DNS Suffix  . . . . . . . : Company.com
            Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
            IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
            WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
    
    Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection 2:
    
            Connection-specific DNS Suffix  . : Company.com
            Description . . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR FA310TX Fast Ethernet Adapter (NGRPCI)
            Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-A0-CC-AA-AA-AA
            DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No
            IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.1.200.1
            Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
            Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 10.1.1.254
             DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . .   : 10.1.1.1
    
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